Events in History on October 1

Victory in Battle

331 BC Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela

  • 366 St Damasus I begins his reign as Catholic Pope
  • 704 Aengibald gives away bishop Willibrord estate in Waalre
  • 911 During a siege in Constantinople, the Theotokos (Mary, the mother of Jesus) appeared at the church in Blachernae holding her veil over the praying faithful, among them St. Andrew of Constantinople.
  • 959 Edgar I, the Peaceful, becomes king of all England
  • 965 John XIII Crescentii elected to succeed Pope Leo VIII
  • 1189 Gerard de Ridefort, grandmaster of the Knights Templar since 1184, is killed in the Siege of Acre
  • 1273 Count Rudolf van Habsburg becomes King of the Germans
  • 1529 -3] Meeting between Maarten Luther & Huldrych Zwingli

Historic Event

1569 Duke of Norfolk arrested by Queen Elizabeth I for conspiring to marry Mary Queen of Scots

  • 1574 -2] Storm breaks Leiden dike; drowns 20,000 Spanish soldiers
  • 1606 Spanish troops under Spinola occupies fort Rhine birch
  • 1653 Russian parliament accepts annexation of Ukraine
  • 1657 Treaty of Raalte: Willem II no longer viceroy of Overijssel
  • 1670 -4] Battle at Simbirsk a/d Wolga: Russian army beats Boers
  • 1688 Prince William of Orange accepts invitation of take up the British crown
  • 1705 Parliament declares Hungary independent, French Rákóczi becomes king
  • 1768 British troops under General Thomas Gage land in Boston
  • 1787 Russians under Suvorov defeat the Turks at Kinburn
  • 1791 1st session of new French legislative assembly
  • 1795 Belgium is conquered by France
  • 1795 France annexes Southern Netherlands
  • 1800 Spain cedes Louisiana to France in a secret treaty
  • 1801 Britain & France sign Preliminary of London

Victory in Battle

1814 Battle of Rancagua begins; Spanish army defeats rebel Chilean army, ending the Chilean Vieja

Historic Event

1814 Opening of the Congress of Vienna, redraws Europe's political map after the defeat of Napoléon Bonaparte

  • 1827 The Russian army under Ivan Paskevich storms Yerevan, ending a millennium of Muslim domination in Armenia
  • 1829 South African College is founded in Cape Town, South Africa; later to separate into the University of Cape Town and the South African College Schools.
  • 1830 General Trade Journal newspaper begins publishing in Amsterdam
  • 1837 "Racer's" Hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico
  • 1837 US imposes treaty on Winnebago Indians in Wisconsin
  • 1843 News of the World begins publication in London

Historic Expedition

1844 German explorer Ludwig Leichhardt departs Jimbour, the farthest outpost of settlement on the Queensland Darling Downs, to begin his exploration of Australia's Northern Territory from Moreton Bay to Port Essington

Historic Invention

1847 German inventor and industrialist Werner von Siemens founds Siemens AG & Halske

  • 1847 Maria Mitchell discovers a non-naked-eye comet
  • 1851 1st Hawaiian stamps issued

Historic Expedition

1852 Alfred Russel Wallace returns to the U.K. after four years of travel, collecting, and research in South America

  • 1854 The watch company founded in 1850 in Roxbury by Aaron Lufkin Dennison relocates to Waltham, Massachusetts, to become the Waltham Watch Company, a pioneer in the American System of Watch Manufacturing.
  • 1863 5 Russian warships welcomed in NYC
  • 1863 Dutch Breda-Tilburg railway opens
  • 1864 Cyclone strikes Calcutta: 70,000 killed
  • 1864 John Summerfield Staples is paid $500 as a substitute for US President Abraham Lincoln
  • 1866 Dutch Eindhoven-Venlo railway opens

Historic Publication

1867 Karl Marx publishes "Das Kapital" in Berlin, a description of the capitalist system, its instability and tendency to self-destruction

Historic Publication

1868 "Little Women" by Louisa May Alcott is published in America by Roberts Brothers of Boston

  • 1868 1st edition of Maasbode published
  • 1868 St Pancras railway station opens in London, largest single span roof in the world (689ft (240m) long, 100ft high (30m) a high point of Victorian Gothic architecture [1]
  • 1869 1st postcards are issued in Vienna, Austria
  • 1871 General Dutch Werkliedenverbond (ANWV), forms in Utrecht
  • 1874 Rotterdam opens drinking water pipes
  • 1885 Special delivery mail service begins in US
  • 1886 US mint at Carson City, Nevada, closes
  • 1887 Balochistan (part of modern Pakistan) conquered by the British
  • 1888 National Geographic magazine publishes for the 1st time
  • 1889 Washington voters adopt state constitution in referendum
  • 1890 Germany's anti-socialist laws lapse
  • 1890 US Congress creates Weather Bureau
  • 1890 US Congress establishes Yosemite National Park (California)

Historic Event

1891 Stanford University, California opens its doors after being founded by Leland Stanford and his wife Jane with a $40M donation (1891 dollars), in memory of their son. Among its first graduation class, future US President Herbert Hoover.

  • 1892 University of Chicago opens
  • 1894 Civic organization, Knights of Ak-Sar-Ben founded in Omaha, Nebraska
  • 1894 First meeting of The Owl Club of Cape Town
  • 1895 Romanians in Costantinople massacred
  • 1898 Dutch railway Alkmaar-Receiver opens
  • 1898 Henry Huntington buys LA Railway
  • 1898 Jews are expelled from Kyiv, Ukraine
  • 1898 The Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration is founded under the name k.u.k. Exportakademie.
  • 1898 Tsar Nikolay II expels Jews from major Russian cities
  • 1904 JB van Heutsz becomes governor general of Dutch East Indies
  • 1904 Netherlands and Portugal lay down boundaries splitting the island of Timor in two

Historic Event

1907 A downturn in the stock market leads to a run on the dollar; US President Theodore Roosevelt later calls on financier J. P. Morgan to help manage the financial crisis

  • 1907 Plaza Hotel at 5th Avenue & 59th Street opens in New York
  • 1908 1st Dutch electric railway in use (Rotterdam-The Hague)
  • 1910 Berkshire Cattle Fair held in Pittsfield Mass (1st state fair)
  • 1910 Explosion at LA Times kills 21
  • 1911 United Dutch Diamond workers get 8-hr day
  • 1914 The first division of Canadian troops, 33,000 sail for Britain; most Canadians are volunteers, anxious to prove their loyalty to the Commonwealth
  • 1914 The Prince of Asir, the southern region of Arabia, rises in revolt against the Turks; his actions will inspire other Arab leaders to revolt

Victory in Battle

1918 World War I: Combined Arab and British force under the Lawrence of Arabia, T. E. Lawrence captures Damascus from the Turks

  • 1920 Dutch law provides for an 8 hour working day
  • 1920 Sir Percy Cox landed in Basra to assume his responsibilities as high commissioner in Iraq.
  • 1921 WJZ, Newark NJ begins broadcasting
  • 1924 1st Dutch airliner, the Fokker F.VII takes off from Amsterdam for Batavia (Java)

Historic Event

1926 Oil field accident costs aviator Wiley Post his left eye, uses the settlement money to buy his 1st aircraft

  • 1928 USSR launches its first 5-year plan
  • 1931 Spanish Cortes accept general female suffrage
  • 1931 The second (and current) Waldorf-Astoria Hotel is opened in New York.
  • 1932 Oswald Mosley forms British Union of Fascists

Treaty of Interest

1934 Adolf Hitler expands German army and navy, violating Treaty of Versailles

Historic Event

1936 Generalissimo Francisco Franco establishes state of Spain

  • 1937 Pullman Co formally recognizes Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters

Historic Event

1938 Germany annexes Sudetenland (1/3 of Czechoslovakia) following the Munich Agreement

  • 1939 After a one-month Siege of Warsaw, hostile forces entered the city.

Historic Event

1939 Winston Churchill calls Russia a "riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma"

  • 1940 Pennsylvania Turnpike, pioneer toll thruway, opens
  • 1942 Bell P-59 Airacomet fighter, 1st US jet, makes maiden flight
  • 1942 Little Golden Books (children's books) begins publishing
  • 1943 1st King's Dragoon Guards (Royal Amoured Corps) liberates suburbs of Naples
  • 1943 Allied forces captured Naples during WW II
  • 1943 Averell Harriman named US ambassador to Moscow
  • 1943 Germans attack Jews in Denmark
  • 1944 Newspaper editor Alejandro Córdova assassinated in Guatemala
  • 1945 US Office of Strategic Services (OSS), precursor to the CIA, disbands
  • 1946 12 Nazi war criminals sentenced to death in Nuremberg
  • 1947 1st helicopter air mail & express service, LA, Ca
  • 1947 The F-86 Sabre flies for the first time.
  • 1947 US control of Haitian customs & governmental revenue ends
  • 1947 William Wister Haines' "Command Decision" premieres in NYC
  • 1948 California Supreme Court voids state statute banning interracial marriages, in Perez v. Sharp case
  • 1948 Radio Denmark begins transmitting

Historic Event

1949 People's Republic of China proclaimed by Mao Zedong (National Day)

  • 1949 Republic of China (Taiwan) forms on island of Formosa
  • 1950 South Korean troops cross the 38th parallel into North Korea
  • 1951 1st treaty signed by woman ambassador-Eugenie Anderson (US ambassador to Denmark)
  • 1951 24th Infantry Regiment, last all-black US military unit, deactivated
  • 1952 Liberal Party wins Japanese elections
  • 1952 Monte Bello-Island (Great Britain 1st atom bomb explosion)
  • 1953 Indian state of Andhra Pradesh partitioned from Madras
  • 1954 British colony of Nigeria becomes a federation
  • 1955 Piet Lieftinck becomes director v/h IMF (World bank)
  • 1956 Zestienhoven airport at Rotterdam official opens
  • 1957 B-52 bombers begin full-time flying alert in case of USSR attack
  • 1957 First appearance of "In God We Trust" on U.S. paper currency.
  • 1958 Britain transfers Christmas Island (south of Java) to Australia
  • 1958 US space agency NASA begins operations incorporating earlier National Advisory Council on Aeronautics and other bodies
  • 1960 Nigeria becomes the 99th member of the United Nations
  • 1960 Nigeria gains independence from Great Britain (National Day)

Theater Premiere

1960 Wole Soyinka's play "A Dance of the Forests" is first performed as part of Nigerian Independence celebrations

  • 1961 A volcanco believed to be extinct erupts in Tristan da Cunha
  • 1961 East & West Cameroon merge as Federal Republic of Cameroon
  • 1961 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

Historic Event

1962 James Meredith becomes the 1st black student at the University of Mississippi

  • 1962 James Meredith enrolls for classes at University of Mississippi, desegregating the college
  • 1962 UN gives Netherlands control of New Guinea
  • 1962 US National Radio Astronomy Observatory installs a 300' (91m) radio telescope in Green Bank, West Virginia
  • 1963 Nigeria enacts a new constitution and becomes a republic
  • 1964 1st official broadcast of Trans World Radio on Bonaire
  • 1964 2nd Dutch televisienet begins broadcastings
  • 1964 Free Speech Movement launched at University of California, Berkley
  • 1964 San Francisco cable cars declared a national landmark
  • 1965 Failed coup under lt col Untung in Indonesia
  • 1965 France performs underground nuclear test at Ecker Algeria
  • 1966 Newspaper magnate Thomson purchases "The Times"
  • 1966 West Coast Airlines Flight 956 crashes with eighteen fatal injuries and no survivors 5.5 miles south of Wemme, Oregon. This accident marks the first loss of a DC-9.
  • 1968 The Guyanese government takes over the British Guiana Broadcasting Service (BGBS).
  • 1969 Concorde 001 jet airplane test flight breaks sound barrier
  • 1969 Guernsey & Jersey begin issuing their own postage stamps
  • 1969 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
  • 1970 Final game played at Philadelphia's Connie Mack Stadium, Phillies win over Montreal Expos, 2–1
  • 1970 Landmark feminist book "The Female Eunuch" by Germaine Greer is published this month
  • 1971 Joseph Luns becomes secretary-general of NATO
  • 1973 USSR-West Germany gas tunnel opens

Historic Event

1974 US Computer scientist Gary Kildall presents the prototype of his CP/M operating system in his backyard toolshed

  • 1974 Watergate cover-up trial opens in Washington, D.C.
  • 1975 Britain grants internal self-government to Seychelles
  • 1975 Ellice Islands split from Gilbert Islands, take name "Tuvalu"
  • 1975 Reunion Island stops printing stamps, France takes over production
  • 1976 1st Dutch casino opens
  • 1977 US Department of Energy established
  • 1978 Comoros adopts constitution
  • 1978 The Voltaic Revolutionary Communist Party is founded.
  • 1978 Tuvalu (formerly Ellice Islands) declares independence from UK
  • 1979 Nigeria adopts constitution, Alhaji Shagari becomes president
  • 1979 Pope John Paul II begins his first papal visit to the USA in Boston
  • 1979 RKO radio network begins operation
  • 1979 Shehu Shagari becomes first and only President of Nigeria's Second Republic
  • 1979 US returns Canal Zone (but not the canal) to Panama after 75 years
  • 1980 Cosmonauts Ryumin & Popov break space endurance record of 176 days
  • 1981 J Chodorov/N Panama's "Talent for Murder" premieres in London

Historic Event

1981 US's largest private investment bank Salomon Brothers sold to commodities trader Phibro Corporation for $483 million

  • 1981 USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya
  • 1982 EPCOT Center opens in Orlando, Florida
  • 1982 The Sony CDP-101, world's first commercially released Compact Disc player released in Japan for 168,000 yen ($730)
  • 1982 USSR performs underground nuclear test

Historic Event

1982 West Germany's Christian Democrat Union ousts Helmut Schmidt as Chancellor, replacing him with Helmut Kohl

  • 1983 Denise Wallace, 18, of Virginia, crowned Miss Teen of America
  • 1984 Gary Trudeau's Doonesbury comic strip resumes after 2-year hiatus
  • 1985 Israeli air raid on PLO-headquarter at Tunis, 68 killed

Historic Publication

1986 Canadian children's author Robert Munsch publishes "Love You Forever"

  • 1986 New Zealand's Labour Government introduces a Goods and Services Tax (GST), adding 10% to the cost of most goods and services
  • 1986 President Carter's presidential library/museum dedicated in Atlanta
  • 1987 6 killed by an earthquake measuring 6.1 in LA
  • 1987 Fiji's constitution is suspended
  • 1987 The Whittier Narrows earthquake shook the San Gabriel Valley, registering as a magnitude 5.9.

Historic Event

1988 Mikhail Gorbachev becomes Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, effectively head of state of the Soviet Union

Historic Publication

1989 Danielle Steel’s novel “Daddy” is published

  • 1989 Thousands of East Germans flee to West Germany

Historic Event

1989 US Army General Colin Powell becomes youngest Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the nation's highest military position, at 52

  • 1989 US Post Office issues a stamp labeling an apatosaurus as a brontosaurus
  • 1990 10,000 Uganda RPF rebels move into Rwanda
  • 1990 Meteorite explodes above Pacific Ocean

Historic Event

1990 Saddam Hussein says he may be willing to negotiate the occupation of Kuwait and would consider foreign participation in negotiations

Historic Event

1990 Serbs in Croatia proclaim autonomy

Historic Event

1990 US President George H. W. Bush at UN, condemns Iraq's takeover of Kuwait

  • 1991 Howard Stern adds Baltimore to his radio network (WJFK-AM)
  • 1991 New Zealand's Resource Management Act 1991 commences.
  • 1991 Soviet Union suspends petroleum product exports as its fuel shortages grow
  • 1992 Greater Pittsburgh International Airport opens