On This Day

Events in History on October 12

  • 539 BC The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon
  • 638 Honorius I ends his reign as Catholic Pope; Pope Severinus elected
  • 642 John IV ends his reign as Catholic Pope
  • 1160 Maurice de Sully is elected bishop of Paris, will initiate plan to build Notre Dame
  • 1165 Jewish rabbi and philosopher Moses ben Maimon (aka Maimonides or the Rambam) reaches Jerusalem

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1216 King John of England loses his crown jewels in The Wash as the flood tide swamps his wagons, probably near Fosdyke, perhaps near Sutton Bridge

King of England King John
King of England
King John
  • 1279 Nichiren, a Japanese Buddhist monk, founder of Nichiren Buddhism, inscribes the Dai-Gohonzon
  • 1285 180 Jews refuse baptism in Munich Germany and are set on fire
  • 1366 King Frederick III of Siciliy forbids decorations on synagogues
  • 1398 The Treaty of Salynas is signed between Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas the Great and the Teutonic Knights, who received Samogitia.
  • 1459 Battle at Ludford Bridge: Richard of York defeated
  • 1492 Flemish rebel leader Philip van Kleef surrenders

DiscoveryHistoric Expedition

1492 Christopher Columbus's expedition makes landfall on a Caribbean island he names San Salvador (likely Watling Island, Bahamas). The explorer believes he has reached East Asia (OS 21 Oct)

Explorer of the New World Christopher Columbus
Explorer of the New World
Christopher Columbus

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1504 Queen Isabella I of Spain signs her testament

Queen of Castile Isabella I of Castile
Queen of Castile
Isabella I of Castile
  • 1509 Emperor Maximilian leaves Italy

Papal VisitThe Protestant Reformation

1518 Pontifical ambassador interrogates Martin Luther
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1517 copy of Martin Luther's 95 theses, the publication of which began the Protestant Reformation in Europe
1517 copy of Martin Luther's 95 theses, the publication of which began the Protestant Reformation in Europe

  • 1549 John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, forces the Duke of Somerset out of his office as Lord Protector.
  • 1576 Rudolf II succeeds Maximilian II as Holy Roman Emperor
  • 1609 Children's rhyme "Three Blind Mice" published in London
  • 1654 The Delft Explosion (gunpowder) devastates the city in the Netherlands, killing more than 100
  • 1659 English "Rump" Parliament dimisses John Lambert & other generals

CrownRoyal Coronation

1711 Charles VI Habsburg crowned Holy Roman Emperor

Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI
Holy Roman Emperor
Charles VI
  • 1729 Willem KH Friso installed as viceroy of Gelderland
  • 1730 Christian VI succeeds Frederik IV as king of Denmark

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1740 English evangelist George Whitefield preaches to 30,000 people in Boston in the US during the 'Great Awakening'

Anglican Preacher George Whitefield
Anglican Preacher
George Whitefield
  • 1773 America's first asylum opens for 'Persons of Insane and Disordered Minds' in Virginia
  • 1776 British Brigade begins guarding Throgg Necks Road in Bronx

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1789 French Revolution: King Louis XVI writes secretly to the King of Spain about complaining of harsh treatment; the Count of Artois writes to the Austrian king requesting military intervention in France

King of France Louis XVI
King of France
Louis XVI
  • 1792 First celebration of Columbus Day in the USA held in New York
  • 1798 Flemish uprising against French occupied Boerenkrijg
  • 1798 Friedrich von Schiller's "Wallensteins Lager" premieres in Weimar
  • 1815 Ex-king Joachim Murat of Naples sentenced to death
  • 1822 Second eruption of Galunggung in Java destroys summit of mountain
  • 1823 Charles Macintosh of Scotland begins selling raincoats (Macs)
  • 1836 18" of snow falls in Bridgewater, NY
  • 1854 Lincoln University founded in Pennsylvania as Ashmun Institute

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1859 Self-proclaimed Emperor of the USA, Emperor Norton issues edict abolishing the US Congress

Emperor of the USA Emperor Norton
Emperor of the USA
Emperor Norton
  • 1860 British & French troops capture Beijing
  • 1861 Confederate ironclad Manassas attack Union's Richmond on Mississippi

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1862 JEB Stuart completes his "second ride around Mcclellan"

Union General George McClellan
Union General
George McClellan
Confederate General J.E.B. Stuart
Confederate General
J.E.B. Stuart
  • 1862 Major General Earl Van Dorn assumes command of Confederate troops in Mississippi
  • 1862 Skirmish at Monocacy, Maryland

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1864 War of the Triple Alliance begins with Brazilian troops under the command of Gen. João Propício Mena Barreto invading Uruguay

President of Paraguay Francisco Solano López
President of Paraguay
Francisco Solano López
  • 1871 US President Grant condemns Ku Klux Klan
  • 1872 Montreal Foot Ball Club 1st game playing Quebec City to 0-0 tie
  • 1879 British troops occupy Kabul, Afghanistan
  • 1881 Henry M Stanley signs contract with Congo monarch
  • 1886 Hurricane & sea surge kills 250 at Indianola Texas
  • 1891 Astronomical Society of France is inaugurated
  • 1892 US Pledge of Allegiance first recited in public schools during Columbus Day
  • 1898 Establishment of the first town council in Mateur.
  • 1899 South Africa Boer Republic declares war on Britain

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1900 The first modern submarine is commissioned by the U.S. Navy as the USS Holland, named for its designer John Philip Holland

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1901 Theodore Roosevelt renames the "Executive Mansion" as "The White House"

26th US President Theodore Roosevelt
26th US President
Theodore Roosevelt
  • 1903 Lyric Theater opens at 213 W 42nd St NYC
  • 1914 The First Battle of Ypres begins

Historic InventionModel T

1915 Ford Motor Company under Henry Ford manufactures its 1 millionth automobile at the River Rouge plant in Detroit
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The 1910 Model T Ford
The 1910 Model T Ford

BattleExecution

1915 Despite international protest, Edith Cavell an English nurse in Belgium, is executed by the Germans for aiding the escape of Allied prisoners

  • 1918 Cloquet fire kills 453 and injures or displaces 52,000 people
  • 1920 Construction begins on Holland Tunnel connecting NJ & NYC
  • 1920 Man O'War's last race & win
  • 1924 Sokolnicheskaya Radio begins broadcasting from Moscow
  • 1925 German-Russian trade agreement signed
  • 1927 Hermann Goerner of Germany raises 24 men weighing 4,123 lbs on a plank with soles of his feet
  • 1928 1st use of iron lung (Boston's Children Hospital)
  • 1931 1st International Conference on Calendar Reform

BrazilChrist the Redeemer

1931 Christ the Redeemer statue opens standing 30 meters high (98 ft) on top of Mount Corcovado overlooking Rio de Janeiro, built by engineer Heitor da Silva Costa
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Christ the Redeemer statue, Brazil
Christ the Redeemer statue, Brazil
  • 1933 Alcatraz becomes a federal prison (unofficially)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1933 John Dillinger escapes from jail in Allen County, Ohio

Gangster John Dillinger
Gangster
John Dillinger
FBI Agent Melvin Purvis
FBI Agent
Melvin Purvis

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1933 Gangster George Francis Barnes, aka Machine Gun Kelly, is sentenced to life imprisonment

  • 1941 Soviet government moves from Moscow to Volga as Nazis forces close in on Moscow
  • 1942 Successful Soviet counter attack through 37th Guard division
  • 1942 US navy defeats Japanese in WW II Battle of Cape Esperance
  • 1943 US bombs Rabaul, New Britain
  • 1944 German army retreats from Athens
  • 1953 US & Greece sign peace treaty (US bases)
  • 1956 Marga Klompe becomes first Dutch women elected minister
  • 1957 First commercial flight between California & Antarctica
  • 1957 Canadian Prime Minister Lester Bowles Pearson wins Nobel Peace Prize
  • 1958 CVP wins municipal elections in Belgium
  • 1958 USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR
  • 1959 At the national congress of APRA in Peru a group of leftist radicals are expelled from the party. They will later form APRA Rebelde.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1960 JFK & Richard Nixon's third presidential debate

37th US President Richard Nixon
37th US President
Richard Nixon

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1960 Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev bangs his shoe on his desk at UN General Assembly session

Soviet First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev
Soviet First Secretary
Nikita Khrushchev
  • 1961 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
  • 1962 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1962 US/USSR sign joint space effort in telecommunications & meteorology
  • 1962 Infamous Columbus Day Storm strikes the U.S. Pacific Northwest with record wind velocities; 46 dead and at least U.S. $230 million in damages
  • 1963 Archaeological digs begin at Masada, Israel
  • 1963 San Francisco's Oakland Bay Bridge converted to 1-way on each deck

  • 1964 Launch of Voskhod 1, first time 3 people in space (Komarov, Feokistov, Yegorov)
  • 1968 Equatorial Guinea (Spanish Guinea) declares independence from Spain
  • 1969 1st time 5 people in space
  • 1969 KDB-AM in Santa Barbara CA changes call letters to KAPN
  • 1969 KHOF (now KAGL) TV ch 30 in San Bernardino/Glenda, CA (IND) begins
  • 1969 Soviet spacecraft Soyuz 7 is launched
  • 1970 Rock Memorabilia Auction at Filmore East
  • 1972 46 sailors injured in race riot on American aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk
  • 1972 Billy Harris failed in 1st Islander penalty shot
  • 1972 Mariner 9 takes pictures of Martian north pole
  • 1973 Israeli counter offensive in southern Syria

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1973 US President Richard Nixon nominates Gerald Ford to replace Spiro Agnew as Vice President

38th US President Gerald Ford
38th US President
Gerald Ford
Vice President of the United States Spiro Agnew
Vice President of the United States
Spiro Agnew
37th US President Richard Nixon
37th US President
Richard Nixon
  • 1974 1st time Wash Caps are shutout as they are beat 6-0 by Minnesota
  • 1975 Archbishop Oliver Plunkett became 1st Irish-born saint in 7 centuries
  • 1975 NASA launches space vehicle S-195

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1976 Hua Guo-feng succeeds Mao Zedong as chairman of Communist Party

Chinese Revolutionary and Chairman of the Communist Party Mao Zedong
Chinese Revolutionary and Chairman of the Communist Party
Mao Zedong
  • 1977 4th test of space shuttle Enterprise
  • 1977 Psychic Romark attempts to drive blindfolded, smashed into cop van
  • 1977 US Supreme Court heard arguments in "reverse discrimination" case of Allan Bakke, white student denied admission to University of California Med School
  • 1978 Representatives of Israel & Egypt open talks in Washington
  • 1979 Typhoon Tip becomes the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded with peak sustained winds of 305km/h (190mph) and a wind diameter of 2,220km (1,380mi)
  • 1979 The lowest recorded non-tornadic atmospheric pressure, 87.0 kPa (870 mbar or 25.69 inHg), occurred in Guam, in the Western Pacific during Typhoon Tip
  • 1980 7 stabbed at Blood, Sweat & Tears concert in LA
  • 1982 38.6 cm (15.2") of rainfall, Angoon Alaska (state record)
  • 1983 5225 Loral & 5424 Covington

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1984 IRA bombs the Grand Hotel, Brighton, where British PM Margaret Thatcher is staying, 5 die

British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
British Prime Minister
Margaret Thatcher
  • 1985 Challenger moves to Vandenberg AFB for maintenance of STS 61A mission
  • 1985 Intl Physicians for Prevention of Nuclear War receives Nobel Prize
  • 1985 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1986 Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, visit the People's Republic of China

Queen of the United Kingdom Elizabeth II
Queen of the United Kingdom
Elizabeth II
Duke of Edinburgh Prince Philip
Duke of Edinburgh
Prince Philip

  • 1987 Oscar Arias (Costa Rican Pres) wins Nobel Peace Prize
  • 1988 George H. W. Bush and Michael Dukakis meet in their second presidential debate
  • 1988 Israel & China sign trade deal, plan diplomatic relations

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1988 Pope John Paul II is the target of anti-papal heckling by Protestant leader Ian Paisley at a European Parliament meeting in Strasbourgh, France

First Minister of Northern Ireland Ian Paisley
First Minister of Northern Ireland
Ian Paisley
264th Pope John Paul II
264th Pope
John Paul II
  • 1990 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1991 Statler Brothers Show premieres on TNN
  • 1991 Professional wrestler Rip is Oliver forced to retire after being injured by Crush
  • 1992 5.8 earthquake at Cairo (at least 510 die)
  • 1992 Arecibo radio telescope begins Microwave Observing Project search for occupied planets
  • 1992 Expo '92 closes in Seville Spain
  • 1992 Howard Stern radio show premieres in Albany NY (WQBK 103.5 & 103.9 FM)
  • 1994 Contact with NASA Venus orbitter Magellan broken
  • 1994 Iranian Fokker F28 explodes between Isfahan and Tehran, killing 66
  • 1997 Sidi Daoud massacre in Algeria; 43 killed at a fake roadblock
  • 1999 Pervez Musharraf takes power in Pakistan from Nawaz Sharif through a bloodless coup
  • 1999 The Day of Six Billion: the proclaimed 6 billionth living human in the world is born
  • 2000 American destroyer USS Cole is badly damaged in Aden, Yemen, by two suicide bombers, killing 17 crew members and wounding at least 39
  • 2002 Terrorists explode two bombs in Bali's nightclub district killing 202 and injuring 209 mostly foreign tourists
  • 2005 The second Chinese human spaceflight Shenzhou 6 launched carrying Fèi Jùnlóng and Niè Hǎishèng for five days in orbit.
  • 2012 The United Nations Security Council unanimously approves of an African-led force to oust Islamist militants in northern Mali
  • 2012 The European Union wins the 2012 Nobel Peace Prize, sparking a series of critical commentary
  • 2013 50 people are killed after a truck veers of a cliff in  La Convencion Province, Peru
  • 2013 15 people are killed by a series of explosions in a fireworks factory in Vietnam

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

2014 Evo Morales is re-elected President of Bolivia

1st Indigenous President of Bolivia Evo Morales
1st Indigenous President of Bolivia
Evo Morales
  • 2016 James Charles (17) becomes the 1st male face of make-up label CoverGirl
  • 2017 Plague outbreak in Madagascar kills 57, with 684 cases so far reported by WHO

Event of interestEvent of Interest

2017 Long-lost bust of Napoleon by Auguste Rodin confirmed found in Madison borough hall, New Jersey, worth at least $4m

Sculptor Auguste Rodin
Sculptor
Auguste Rodin
  • 2018 US air strike in central Somalia kills about 60 al-Shabab militants
  • 2019 Typhoon Hagibis makes landfall on the Izu Peninsula near Tokyo, Japan, bringing record rainfall and killing at least 56 people
  • 2019 California is the 1st US state to pass law banning sale and manufacture of new fur products