On This Day

Symphony History (Part 2)

Events in Music

Events 101 - 190 of 190

Music Premiere

1938-04-08 Walter Piston's 1st Symphony in E, premieres in Boston, by the Boston Symphony, conducted by the composer

  • 1939-02-24 Roy Harris' 3rd Symphony premieres in Boston
  • 1939-04-05 Alexander Gretchaninov's 5th Symphony premieres at the Academy of Music in Philadelphia with Leopold Stowkowski conducting the Philadelphia Orchestra

Music Premiere

1939-12-03 Dmitri Shostakovich's 6th Symphony premieres

  • 1941-01-03 Sergei Rachmaninoff's final composition "Symphonic Dances" premieres in Philadelphia, with Eugene Ormandy conducting the Philadelphia Orchestra
  • 1941-02-22 Paul Creston's 1st Symphony premieres

Music Premiere

1941-03-29 1st performance of Benjamin Britten's "Requiem Symphony"

  • 1941-05-16 1st US radio performance of Robert Russell Bennett''s "Symphony in D for the Dodgers"

Music History

1941-07-19 BBC World Service begins playing V(ictory) ("...-" in Morse code) (opening of Ludwig van Beethoven's 5th symphony)

Music Premiere

1942-05-14 World premiere performance of Aaron Copland's "Lincoln Portrait" with: Andre Kostelanetz conducting the Cincinnati Symphony in Cincinnati, Ohio

  • 1942-06-22 European broadcast première of Dmitri Shostakovich's 7th Symphony in London conducted by Sir Henry J. Wood and the London Philharmonic Orchestra
  • 1942-07-19 US première of Dmitri Shostakovich' 7th Symphony in NYC by the NBC Symphony Orchestra under Arturo Toscanini in a concert broadcast nationwide on NBC radio
  • 1942-08-09 Dmitri Shostakovich's 7th Symphony, dedicated to city of Leningrad, performed in Leningrad by starving musicians and broadcast to German forces over loudspeakers during siege by Nazi forces
  • 1943-11-03 Dmitri Shostakovich's 8th Symphony premieres in Moscow

Music Premiere

1943-12-03 Howard Hanson conducts premiere of his 4th Symphony ("Requiem") with the Boston Symphony; Wins Pulitzer Prize for Music, 1944

  • 1944-02-25 Alexander Gretchaninov's "Missa Oecumenica" (Ecumenical Mass) premieres in Boston with Serge Koussevitzky conducting the Boston Symphony Orchestra; the composer wrote the work in memory of the conductor's wife Natalie (1880-1942)

Music Premiere

1944-03-03 Premiere performance of US Army Corporal Samuel Barber's 2nd Symphony by the Boston Symphony, conducted by Serge Koussevitzky in Boston, Massachusetts

Music History

1946-04-24 One-act ballet "Symphonic Variations" choreographed by Frederick Ashton with music by César Franck danced by Sandler's Wells Ballet debuts at Covent Garden, London

Music Premiere

1946-08-17 Arthur Honegger's 3rd Symphony "Liturgique" premieres

Music Premiere

1946-12-20 Darius Milhaud's 2nd Symphony, premieres

  • 1947-01-09 Roger Sessions' 2nd Symphony premieres in San Francisco with Pierre Monteux conducting the San Francisco Symphony,
  • 1947-01-21 Arthur Honegger's 4th Symphony premieres in Basel, Switzerland
  • 1947-02-16 Morton Gould's 3rd Symphony, premieres
  • 1947-10-30 Darius Milhaud's 3rd Symphony "Hymnus Ambrosianus," premieres in Paris
  • 1948-01-09 Walter Piston's 3rd Symphony in E, premieres in Boston by the Boston Symphony Orchestra; conducted by Serge Koussevitzky; wins 1947 Pulitzer Prize
  • 1949-07-09 Benjamin Britten's Jump Symphony premieres
  • 1950-10-27 Paul Creston's 3rd Symphony, "Triumph of St Joan" premieres
  • 1950-10-30 David Diamond's 3rd Symphony, premieres
  • 1950-11-23 Howard Swanson's "Short Symphony" premieres
  • 1951-03-30 1st performance of Walter Piston's 4th Symphony commissioned to mark the University of Minnesota's centennial, debuts by the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra, Antal Doráti conducting
  • 1952-01-30 Paul Creston's 4th Symphony premieres
  • 1953-10-25 Dmitri Shostakovich completes his 10th Symphony
  • 1953-11-06 Masao Oki's symphony "Atomic Bomb" premieres
  • 1953-12-17 Dmitri Shostakovich's 10th Symphony premieres in Leningrad
  • 1955-01-14 Heitor Villa-Lobos' 8th Symphony premieres by the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by the composer, in Carnegie Hall, New York City
  • 1955-11-25 Walter Piston's 6th Symphony, composed to mark the 75th Anniversary of the Boston Symphony, premieres, led by Charles Munch
  • 1956-02-24 Walter Piston's 5th Symphony, commissioned by the Juilliard School of Music for their 50th anniversary, premiere performance by the Juilliard Orchestra, conducted by Jean Morel
  • 1957-03-08 1st performance of David Diamond's 6th Symphony in Boston
  • 1957-04-04 Heitor Villa-Lobos' 10th Symphony premieres French Radio National Orchestra, conducted by the composer, in Paris
  • 1957-10-30 Dmitri Shostakovich's 11th Symphony premieres in Moscow
  • 1957-12-06 Roger Sessions' 3rd Symphony premieres in Boston with Charles Munch conducting the Boston Symphony

Music Premiere

1959-01-30 Paul Hindemith's symphony "Pittsburgh" premieres

Music Premiere

1963-12-10 Leonard Bernstein premieres his Third Symphony "Kaddish" with the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, in Tel Aviv, Israel

  • 1964-02-07 Roger Sessions' 5th Symphony premieres in Philadelphia with Eugene Ormandy conducting the Philadelphia Orchestra
  • 1965-03-05 1st performance of Walter Piston's 8th Symphony (his last), by the Boston Symphony, conducted by Erich Leinsdorf
  • 1965-04-26 Charles Ives' 4th Symphony premieres at Carnegie Hall, New York, 11 years after the composer's death

Music Single

1965-10-06 The Supremes release single "I Hear a Symphony"

  • 1966-06-25 Dmitri Shostakovich's 13th Symphony, premieres in Leningrad
  • 1967-10-01 Roger Sessions' 7th Symphony premieres in Ann Arbor, Michigan with Jean Martinon conducting the Chicago Symphony Orchestra
  • 1968-02-29 Howard Hanson's 6th Symphony, premieres
  • 1968-05-02 Roger Sessions' 8th Symphony premiers in New York City with William Steinberg conducting the New York Philharmonic
  • 1969-03-02 Dmitri Shostakovich completes his 14th Symphony
  • 1969-06-21 Dmitri Shostakovich's 14th Symphony premieres in Moscow
  • 1972-01-08 Dmitri Shostakovich' 15th Symphony premieres in Moscow
  • 1972-06-01 Dmitri Shostakovich's 15th Symphony, Dutch premieres in West Berlin
  • 1977-03-04 Roger Sessions' 6th Symphony premieres (in fully completed form) in New York City with José Serebrier conducting the Juilliard Orchestra
  • 1980-01-17 Roger Sessions' 9th Symphony, his last, premieres in Syracuse, New York with Christopher Keene conducting the Syracuse Symphony Orchestra
  • 1981-10-23 "Concerto for Orchestra" by American composer Roger Sessions premieres with Seiji Ozawa conducting the Boston Symphony Orchestra
  • 1982-10-17 1st live orchestra on a US commercial network since 1954 (National Symphony)
  • 1984-09-28 Krzysztof Penderecki's initial version of "A Polish Requiem" premieres with Mstislav Rostropovich leading the Stuttgart Radio Symphony
  • 1989-12-25 Leonard Bernstein conducts Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 in East Berlin's Schauspielhaus to celebrate fall of the Berlin Wall. Broadcast worldwide to audience of 100 million.
  • 1994-12-01 Rober Schumanns 2nd Symphony premieres in London
  • 1995-12-08 Krzysztof Penderecki conducts the Munich Philharmonic for the premiere of his Symphony No. 3
  • 1997-01-09 Krzysztof Penderecki's choral symphony "Seven Gates of Jerusalem" premieres in Jerusalem, Israel
  • 1997-11-24 "Street Corner Symphony" opens at Brooks Atkinson Theatre, NYC; runs for 79 performances
  • 1998-02-01 "Street Corner Symphony" closes at Brooks Atkinson NYC after 79 performances

Birthdays in Music

  • 1920-07-21 Isaac Stern, American-Ukrainian violinist (debut San Francisco Symphony), born in Kremenets, Ukraine, Soviet Union (d. 2001)
  • 1920-09-30 Ghazar Saryan, Armenian composer (Symphonic Panels on motifs by Saryan; Day of Peace), and educator (Komitas State Conservatory, 1960-86), born in Rostov-on-Don, Russia (d. 1998)
  • 1923-08-26 Wolfgang Sawallisch, German conductor (Vienna Symphony, 1960-70; Philadelphia Orchestra, 1993-2003), and pianist, born in Munich, Germany (d. 2013)
  • 1923-12-12 David Leon Kaplan, American-Canadian music professor (University of Saskatchewan, 1960-82), conductor (Saskatoon Symphony, 1962-72), and composer, born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 2015)
  • 1924-03-25 Julia Perry, American classical composer (Soul Symphony; Cask of Amontillado; Homunuclus C.F.), born in Lexington, Kentucky (d. 1979)
  • 1924-04-12 Sergiu Natra, Romanian-Israeli composer (Symphony in Red, Blue, Yellow and Green), and music professor (Tel Aviv University, 1975-85), born in Bucharest, Romania (d. 2021)
  • 1925-07-12 Yasushi Akutagawa, Japanese composer (Orpheus of Hiroshima, Ellora Symphony), born in Tokyo, Japan (d. 1989)
  • 1925-11-15 Jurriaan Andriessen, Dutch pianist and composer (Berkshire Symphonies; Les Cloches des Clochards), born in Haarlem, Netherlands (d. 1996)
  • 1926-03-30 Werner Torkanowsky, German conductor (New Orleans Symphony, 1963-77; Bangor Symphony, 1981-92), born in Berlin, Germany (d. 1992)
  • 1926-05-15 [Jean-Josephat] Clermont Pépin, Canadian pianist and composer (Implosion Symphony), born in Saint-Georges, Quebec (d. 2006)
  • 1926-05-30 Edouard Van Remoortel, Belgian conductor (1958-62 St Louis Symphony), born in Brussels, Belgium (d. 1977)
  • 1927-07-11 Herbert Blomstedt, American conductor (Dresdner Staatskapelle, 1975-85; San Francisco Symphony 1985-95), born in Springfield, Massachusetts
  • 1927-08-11 Raymond Leppard, British-American harpsichordist, conductor (Indianapolis Symphony, 1987-2001; BBC Northern Symphony, 1973-80), and composer (Lord Of The Flies), born in London, England
  • 1928-03-24 Byron "Yanks" Janis, American concert pianist (debut with NBC Symphony Orchestra at age 15), born in McKeesport, Pennsylvania
  • 1928-06-16 Sergiu Comissiona, Romanian-Israeli-American conductor (Haifa Symphony, 1959-64; Gothenburg Symphony, 1966-77; Philharmonic; Baltimore Symphony, 1969-84), born in Bucharest, Romania (d. 2005)
  • 1928-06-25 William Joseph Russo, American trombonist, jazz, classical and theater composer (Titans Symphony) and educator, born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 2003)
  • 1928-07-23 Leon Fleisher, American pianist and conductor (Annapolis Symphony, 1970-82), born in San Francisco, California (d. 2020) [1]
  • 1929-04-06 André Previn, German-American conductor (London Symphony), film score composer (My Fair Lady), and jazz pianist, born in Berlin, Germany (d. 2019)
  • 1930-03-06 Lorin Maazel, American conductor (Cleveland Orchestra, 1972-82; Orchestre National de France, 1977-91; NY Philharmonic 2001-09), born in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France (d. 2014)
  • 1930-05-19 Hans Kox, Dutch composer (Dorian Gray; Symphony No. 4 - "Tasmanian"), and educator, born in Arnhem, Netherlands (d. 2019)
  • 1930-07-25 Maureen Forrester, Canadian operatic contralto (Mahler's "Resurrection" Symphony), born in Montreal, Quebec (d. 2010)
  • 1931-03-05 Barry Tuckwell, Australian horn player (London Symphony, 1955-68), born in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1931-08-26 Dane Škerl, Slovene conductor, composer (Rhapsodic Symphony), and teacher, born in Ljubljana, Kingdom of Yugoslavia (now of Slovenia) (d. 2002)
  • 1931-10-20 Jules Eskin, American cellist (Boston Symphony, 1964-2016), born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 2016)
  • 1932-01-25 Constance Weldon, American symphonic tuba player (Boston Pops; Concertgebouw) and educator, born in Winter Haven, Florida (d. 2020)
  • 1932-03-21 Joseph Silverstein, American violinist, concertmaster and conductor (Boston Symphony Orchestra, 1955-84), born in Detroit, Michigan
  • 1932-11-21 Pelle Gudmundsen-Holmgreen, Danish composer (Symphony and Antiphony), born in Copenhagen; (d. 2016)
  • 1933-06-26 Claudio Abbado, Italian conductor (La Scala, 1969-86; London Symphony, 1979-87; Berlin Philharmonic, 1989-2002), born in Milan, Italy (d. 2014)
  • 1933-12-06 Henryk Górecki, Polish composer (Symphony No. 3 - Symphony of Sorrowful Songs), born in Czernica, Poland (d. 2010)
  • 1934-02-24 Shuko Mizuno, Japanese composer (Symphonic Metamorphoses), born in Tokushima, Japan
  • 1935-01-28 Leonid Hrabovsky, Ukrainian-American contemporary classical composer (Meditation and Pathetic Recitative; Symphonic Frescoes), born in Kiev, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union (now Ukraine)e
  • 1935-06-24 Jiří Teml, Czech composer (People and Sources Symphony), born in Vimperk, Czechoslovakia
  • 1935-09-01 Seiji Ozawa, Japanese conductor (Boston Symphony Orchestra, 1973-2002), born in Mukden, Manchuria
  • 1936-01-02 Paul Freeman, American conductor and composer (Chicago Sinfonietta, 1987 -2011; Czech National Symphony, 1996-2007), born in Richmond, Virginia (d. 2015)
  • 1936-04-09 Jerzy Maksymiuk, Polish pianist, composer and conductor (BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra, 1983-93), born in Grodno, Poland
  • 1936-07-09 David Joel Zinman, American composer and conductor (Baltimore Symphony, 1985-98), born in NYC, New York
  • 1936-11-21 James DePreist, American conductor (Mitropoulos Prize, 1964, Oregon Symphony, 1980-2003), born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 2013)
  • 1937-06-07 Neeme Järvi, Estonian-American conductor (Gothenburg Symphony, 1982-2004; Detroit Symphony, 1990-2005), born in Tallinn, Estonia
  • 1937-08-14 Brian Fennelly, American classical composer (A Thoreau Symphony), born in Kingston, New York (d. 2015)
  • 1938-05-10 Maxim Shostakovich, Russian-American pianist and conductor, born in Leningrad, USSR (now Saint Petersburg, Russia)
  • 1940-02-20 Christoph Eschenbach, German pianist and conductor (Houston Symphony, 1988-99; Philadelphia Orchestra, 2003-08: National Symphony 2010-17), born in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland)
  • 1940-05-06 Murry Sidlin, American conductor (National Symphony, 1973-77; Long Beach Symphony, 1980-88), arranger (Defiant Requiem), and educator, born in Baltimore, Maryland
  • 1941-03-08 Ivana Loudová, Czech composer (Vocal Symphony), born in Chlumec nad Cidlinou, Bohemia (d. 2017)
  • 1941-07-28 Riccardo Muti, Italian conductor (Philadelphia Orchestra, 1980-92; La Scala, 1986-2005; Chicago Symphony 2010-present), born in Naples, Kingdom of Italy
  • 1942-06-18 Hans Vonk, Dutch conductor (The Hague Philharmonic, 1980-1991; St. Louis Symphony, 1996-2002), born in Amsterdam (d. 2004)
  • 1942-11-18 Jeffrey Siegel, American pianist (Chicago Symphony), born in Chicago, Illinois
  • 1944-03-02 Leif Segerstam, Finnish violinist, conductor, and composer of 342 symphonies (...and counting!), born in Vaasa, Finland
  • 1944-09-01 Leonard Slatkin, American conductor (St. Louis Symphony, 1979-96; Detroit Symphony, 2008-19), born in Los Angeles, California
  • 1944-10-01 Herbert "Tubo" Rhoad, American baritone a cappella singer (Persuasions - "Street Corner Symphony"), born in Bamberg, South Carolina (d. 1988)
  • 1944-12-21 Michael Tilson Thomas, American conductor (San Francisco Symphony, 1995-2020), and composer (Shówa/Shoáh), born in Los Angeles, California
  • 1946-02-19 Alexander Tchaikovsky, Russian composer (Russian Requiem; Symphony No. 7 - Quarantine), born in Moscow, USSR
  • 1947-06-02 Mark Elder, British opera and symphony conductor
  • 1947-08-19 Gerard Schwarz, American classical trumpeter and conductor (Seattle Symphony, 1985-2011), born in Weehawken, New Jersey
  • 1948-03-05 Richard Hickox, British organist, musical director, and conductor (City of London Sinfonia,,1971-2008; London Symphony Chorus from 1976-91), born in Stokenchurch in Buckinghamshire, England (d. 2008)
  • 1948-05-06 Jacques Israelievitch, French Canadian classical violinist, concertmaster (St. Louis Symphony, 1978-88; Toronto Symphony, 1988-2008), and music director (Koffler Chamber Orchestra, 2005-14), born in Cannes, France (d. 2015)
  • 1953-02-20 Riccardo Chailly, Italian conductor (La Scala, 2017-present; Gewandhausorchester, 2005–16; Concertgebouw, 1988–2004), born in Milan, Italy
  • 1953-02-28 Osmo Vänskä, Finnish clarinetist, conductor (Lahti Symphony, 1988-2008; Minnesota Orchestra, 2003-2022), and composer, born in Sääminki, Finland
  • 1955-01-19 Simon Rattle, English orchestra conductor (Birmingham Symphony Orchestra), born in Liverpool, United Kingdom
  • 1956-10-16 Marin Alsop, American conductor and 1st woman to head a major American orchestra (Baltimore Symphony, 2007-2021; Vienna RSO, 2019-present), born in NYC, New York
  • 1958-07-05 Paul Daniel, British opera and symphony conductor, born in Birmingham
  • 1958-07-19 David Robertson, American symphony orchestra conductor, born in Malibu, California
  • 1958-09-17 Manfred Honeck, Austrian conductor (Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, 2007-present), born in Nenzing, Austria
  • 1960-07-17 Dawn Upshaw, American soprano (Symphony of Sorrowful Songs), born in Nashville, Tennessee
  • 1962-12-08 Rodolfo Saglimbeni, Venezuelan conductor (Municipal Symphony Orchestra of Caracas, 2003-present), born in Barquisimeto, Venezuela
  • 1965-10-26 Sakari Oramo, Finnish conductor (City of Birmingham Symphony, 1998-2008; Royal Stockholm Philharmonic, 2008-21; BBC Symphony, 2013-23), born in Helsinki, Finland
  • 1968-03-06 Michael Romeo, American musician (Symphony X)
  • 1969-05-17 Ryan Anthony, American trumpet player (Canadian Brass, 2000-03; Dallas Symphony, 2006-20), born in Whittier, California (d. 2020)
  • 1970-03-12 Roy Khan [Khantatat], Norwegian symphonic metal singer (Kamelot, 1997-2011; Conception, since 2018), born in Norway
  • 1971-07-19 Russell Allen, American rock vocalist (Symphony X; Trans-Siberian Orchestra), born in Long Beach, California
  • 1971-09-11 Richard Ashcroft, British singer (The Verve - "Bitter Sweet Symphony"), born in Wigan, Lancashire, England
  • 1972-01-14 Predrag Gosta, Serbian-American conductor (Makris Symphony Orchestra, 2015-present), harpsichordist, and baritone, born in Belgrade, Yugoslavia (now Serbia)
  • 1972-03-05 Luca Turilli, Italian symphonic metal composer, guitarist and keyboard player (Rhapsody), born in Trieste, Italy
  • 1972-08-10 Christofer Johnsson, Swedish symphonic metal guitarist, and composer (Therion), born in Upplands Väsby, Sweden
  • 1975-08-31 Daniel Harding, British conductor (Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra, 2007 to present), born in Oxford, England
  • 1978-11-18 Andris Nelsons, Latvian conductor (Boston Symphony; Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra), born in Riga, Latvia
  • 1980-02-23 Rafael Payare, Venezuelan conductor (San Diego Symphony, 2019-present), born in Puerto la Cruz, Venezuela
  • 1980-10-31 Alondra de la Parra, Mexican-American conductor (Queensland Symphony, 2015-present), and founder and artistic director of the New York-based Philharmonic Orchestra of the Americas (2004-11), born in NYC, New York
  • 1985-12-10 Grace Chatto, British electronic-pop singer and cellist (Clean Bandit - "Rather Be"; "Symphony"), born in London

Weddings in Music


Deaths in Music

  • 2011-09-18 Kurt Sanderling, German conductor (East Berlin Symphony 1960-77), dies at 98
  • 2011-12-25 Israel Baker, American concert and session violinist (NBC Symphony; Paramount Studios Orchestra), dies at 92
  • 2013-02-08 James DePreist, American conductor (Mitropoulos Prize, 1964, Oregon Symphony, 1980-2003), dies of a heart attack at 76
  • 2013-02-22 Wolfgang Sawallisch, German conductor (Vienna Symphony, 1960-70; Philadelphia Orchestra, 1993-2003), and pianist, dies aged 89
  • 2014-01-20 Claudio Abbado, Italian conductor (La Scala, 1969-86; London Symphony, 1979-87; Berlin Philharmonic, 1989-2002), dies of stomach cancer at 80
  • 2015-04-06 David Leon Kaplan, American-Canadian music professor (University of Saskatchewan, 1960-82), conductor (Saskatoon Symphony, 1962-72), and composer, dies at 91
  • 2015-06-22 Joseph de Pasquale, American violist (Boston Symphony, 1949-64: Philadelphia Orchestra, 1964-96), and educator (Curtis Institutu, 1965-2015), dies at 95
  • 2015-07-21 Paul Freeman, American conductor and composer (Chicago Sinfonietta, 1987 -2011; Czech National Symphony, 1996-2007), dies at 79
  • 2015-09-05 Jacques Israelievitch, French Canadian classical violinist, concertmaster (St. Louis Symphony, 1978-88; Toronto Symphony, 1988-2008), and music director (Koffler Chamber Orchestra, 2005-14), dies of lung cancer at 67
  • 2016-11-15 Jules Eskin, American cellist (Boston Symphony, 1964-2016), dies of cancer at 85 [1]
  • 2017-07-25 Ivana Loudová, Czech composer (Vocal Symphony), dies at 76
  • 2018-06-26 Edward Simons, American classical violinist and conductor (Rockland Symphony, 1962-2017), dies at 101
  • 2019-02-25 Hans Kox, Dutch composer (Dorian Gray; Symphony No. 4 - "Tasmanian"), and educator, dies at 88
  • 2019-02-28 André Previn [Andreas Priwin], German-American conductor (London Symphony, 1968-79; Pittsburgh Symphony, 1975-85), film score composer (My Fair Lady), and jazz pianist, dies at 89-ish
  • 2019-10-22 Raymond Leppard, British-American harpsichordist and conductor (Indianapolis Symphony, 1987-2001), dies at 93
  • 2020-06-23 Ryan Anthony, American trumpet player (Canadian Brass, 2000-03; Dallas Symphony, 2006-20), dies of cancer at 51
  • 2020-08-02 Leon Fleisher, American pianist and conductor (Annapolis Symphony 1970-82), dies of cancer at 92 [1]
  • 2020-08-07 Constance Weldon, American symphonic tuba player (Boston Pops; Concertgebouw) and educator, dies at 88
  • 2021-02-23 Sergiu Natra, Romanian-Israeli composer (Symphony in Red, Blue, Yellow and Green), and music professor (Tel Aviv University, 1975-85), dies at 96