Profession: 1st Emperor of Mexico
Biography: During the Mexican War of Independence, Iturbide built a successful political and military coalition that took control in Mexico City on 27 September 1821, decisively gaining Mexico independence from Spain.
After the liberation of Mexico was secured, Iturbide was proclaimed President of the Regency of Mexico in 1821. He took the throne a year later, becoming the first Emperor of Mexico, reigning from 19 May 1822 to 19 March 1823.
Although Iturbide's reign was short, it defined the political struggles before and after independence. The two ends of Mexico's political spectrum, liberals who favored populist representative government and conservatives who favored a more authoritarian monarchical regime, would each gain the upper hand at various times in the decades after Iturbide's abdication.
Another legacy Iturbide left to Mexico is the current Mexican flag, which he is credited with designing.
- 1821-02-24 Agustín de Iturbide and Vicente Guerrero agree to the Plan of Iguala, stating that Mexico will become a constitutional monarchy, Roman Catholicism the official religion and that Peninsulares and Creoles will enjoy equal political and social rights
- 1821-09-27 Mexican revolutionary forces led by Agustín de Iturbide occupy Mexico City as Spanish withdraw, bringing an end to the Mexican War of Independence
- 1822-07-25 General Agustin de Iturbide crowned Agustin I, 1st Emperor of Mexico