Profession: US President & General
Political Party: Democratic-Republican, Democratic
Political Titles: Senator from Tennessee, 1st Territorial Governor of Florida, Member of the United States House of Representatives from Tennessee's At-Large District
Why Famous: Nicknamed 'Old Hickory', Jackson served as the 7th President of the United States (1829-1837). The son of Irish immigrants, he was orphaned at the age of 14. Jackson began his career as a lawyer in Tennessee, becoming a land speculator and was one of the 3 founders of the city of Memphis in 1819.
After joining the Tennessee Militia, Jackson rose to become the General in charge. In this capacity he fought in the American Revolutionary War. He also defeated the Red Sticks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814 and the British in The Battle of New Orleans in 1815.
Jackson ran for president in the 1824 election, but the House of Representatives voted in John Quincy Adams as president in the second instance of a contingent election after no candidate won a majority of electoral college votes. Jackson railed against this as a "corrupt bargain" and he and his supporters formed the Democratic Party in response. Jackson was eventually succeeded Adams in 1828 and became the 7th President.
His two terms in office were marked by several important events. Believing that the National Bank was a corrupt institution, he authorized its dismantling, and in 1835 he became the only president to pay off the National Debt. He confronted South Carolina during the Nullification Crisis, eventually ending the dispute by amending controversial tariffs and threatening to use military force. In 1830 he signed the highly controversial Indian Removal Act, which forcibly moved Native Indians to Indian territories, and he also vehemently opposed abolitionism.
Jackson retired from office in 1837, and though his reputation was initially positive it declined during the civil rights movement as a result of his opinions on slavery and his removal of the Indians.
- 1787-11-21 Andrew Jackson admitted to the bar
- 1806-05-30 Future US President Andrew Jackson kills Charles Dickinson in a duel after Dickinson accused Jackson's wife of bigamy
- 1814-03-27 Battle at Horseshoe Bend: General Andrew Jackson defeats the Red Sticks, part of the Creek Indian tribe near Dadeville, Alabama
- 1818-04-07 General Andrew Jackson conquers St Marks, Florida from Seminole indians
- 1818-05-24 General Andrew Jackson captures Pensacola, Florida
- 1824-07-24 Harrisburg Pennsylvanian newspaper publishes results of 1st public opinion poll, with a clear lead for Andrew Jackson
- 1824-11-02 Popular presidential vote 1st recorded; Andrew Jackson beats John Quincy Adams
- 1824-12-01 US House of Representatives begins to decide outcome of election deadlock between John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson (Adams wins)
- 1828-12-03 Andrew Jackson elected 7th US President
- 1829-03-04 Andrew Jackson inaugurated as 7th US President
- 1832-12-05 Andrew Jackson re-elected President of US
- 1835-01-30 Richard Lawrence misfires at President Andrew Jackson in Washington, D.C. in 1st attempted assassination of a US President
- 1836-07-01 US President Andrew Jackson announces to Congress bequest by James Smithson of 100,000 gold sovereigns to found institution in Washington.
- 1837-03-03 US President Andrew Jackson and Congress recognize the Republic of Texas
- 1845-06-10 Andrew Jackson's African Grey parrot "Poll" is removed from his funeral for swearing at The Hermitage, Tennessee. Funeral attendee William Menefee Norment recorded: "Before the sermon and while the crowd was gathering, a wicked parrot that was a household pet got excited and commenced swearing so loud and long as to disturb the people and had to be carried from the house”
- "Any man worth his salt will stick up for what he believes right, but it takes a slightly better man to acknowledge instantly and without reservation that he is in error."