Why Famous: Born in 384 BC in the northwestern city of Stagira, Aristotle was sent to Athens to study at Plato's Academy. Upon Plato's death in 347 BC he left the city working elsewhere until in 343 at the request of King Philip of Macedon he went to tutor the young Alexander, later Alexander the Great.
Its unclear how long he taught Alexander but stayed in Macedon until 335 BC when he returned to Athens to found his own school, which came to be called the Lyceum. The Lyceum taught a wide range of topics and its pupils were called Peripatetics due to Aristotle's habit of walking while he taught. Aristotle's notes and other collected manuscripts formed a significant library that partially survived to be translated and distributed and which formed the basis for Western philosophy.
Aristotle's own philosophical studies ranged from ethics, political theory and metaphysics. Aristotle's research and writings encompassed a huge range of scholarly study, including most of the sciences, in subjects such as biology, botany, chemistry, rhetoric and zoology.