Full Name: Cleopatra VII Philopator
Profession: Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt
Biography: Cleopatra reigned as Queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt from 51 to 30 BC, which made her the last active ruler of this dynasty. She was a descendant of Ptolemy I Soter, the companion of Alexander the Great who founded the dynasty in 305 BC.
Cleopatra initially reigned alongside her brother Ptolemy XIII, but this partnership ended in a civil war in which Cleopatra emerged victorious after the intervention of Julius Caesar with his Roman armies. Caesar then appointed her to rule jointly with her other brother, Ptolemy XIV.
She was further involved with Roman affairs when she sided with the Second Triumvirate, during which time she had an affair with Mark Antony. When she married Mark Antony, however, this required his divorce from the sister of Octavian, another member of the triumvirate.
Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra's naval fleet in the Battle of Actium and then invaded Egypt, at which Antony and then Cleopatra separately committed suicide.
Birthplace: Alexandria, Egypt
- 0044-09-02 BC Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son Caesarion co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesar
- 0031-09-02 BC Battle of Actium: decisive naval battle that effectively ends the Roman Republic. Octavian's forces defeat those under Mark Antony and Cleopatra off the western coast of Greece.