Biography: Emilio Aguinaldo was a Filipino revolutionary general and 1st President of the Philippines. He played a leading role in the Revolution against Spain (1896-1897) and against the United States during the Philippine–American War (1899-1901).
After battling Spanish forces, in 1897 Aguinaldo signed the “Pact of Biak-na-Bato” with the Spanish Government giving the rebels amnesty and monetary indemnity, in return for the rebels exile in Hong Kong. He reorganized his revolutionary government into the so-called "Hong Kong Junta" and enlarged it into the "Supreme Council of the Nation".
Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines and resumed command of revolutionary forces besieging Manila. He issued a decree replacing his dictatorial government with a revolutionary government, declaring himself President.
In June 1898 he declared the Philippines independent from Spain. However by February 1899 he was fighting the Philippine–American War (1899-1901), and when captured in 1901 swore an oath of allegiance to the US in the face of outstanding odds.
In 1935 Aguinaldo ran unsuccessfully against Manuel Quezon during the Philippine Commonwealth elections.
- 1896-01-01 1st Filipino President Emilio Aguinaldo (26) weds first wife Hilaria del Rosario
- 1930-07-14 1st Filipino President Emilio Aguinaldo (61) weds second wife Maria Agoncillo (51) at Barasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan
- 1895-01-01 Aguinaldo became a Freemason, joining Pilar Lodge No. 203, Imus, Cavite
- 1897-02-17 Emilio Aguinaldo and a group of katipuneros defeat Spanish forces led by General Camilo de Polavieja at the Battle of Zapote Bridge in Cavite
- 1897-12-14 Emilio Aguinaldo signs the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, to end hostilities and dissolve his government, in exchange for amnesty and "$800,000 (Mexican)" as an indemnity
- 1898-06-12 Filipino revolutionary forces under General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the sovereignty and independence of the Philippine Islands from the colonial rule of Spain
- 1898-06-23 Emilio Aguinaldo issues a decree replacing his dictatorial government with a revolutionary government, with himself as President
- 1899-01-23 Emilio Aguinaldo is sworn in as President of the First Philippine Republic
- 1901-04-19 In the Philippines, recently captured insurgent leader Emilio Aguinaldo issues a proclamation advising his countrymen to end their rebellion and use of peaceful means to work with the US toward independence.
- 1901-05-23 US captures leader of Filipino rebels, Emilio Aguinaldo