Full Name: Ismail Enver Pasha
Profession: Leader of the Ottoman Empire
Why Famous: The leader of the 1908 Young Turk Revolution which ushered in multi-party politics in the Ottoman Empire, Pasha was one of the most important figures in Ottoman politics, effectively ruling the country from 1914 to 1918. He also served as Minister for War during this time.
He came to power after a coup in 1913 and was part of a triumvirate that established control over the country. Entering World War I on the side of Germany, Pasha was one of the people most directly responsible for orchestrating the Armenian Genocide, in which 800,000 to 1,800,000 Armenians were murdered.
After the collapse of the Ottoman war effort, the Sultan Mehmed VI dismissed Pasha and his colleagues, and they fled into exile. They were later tried in abstentia for "plunging the country into war without a legitimate reason, forced deportation of Armenians and leaving the country without permission" and sentenced to death. He later died in combat leading a brigade of rebels in the Soviet Union.
- 1908-08-16 The Committee of Union and Progress, 'The Young Turks', announces a program for reforms and respect for the rights of all within the Ottoman Empire, regardless of race or religion
- 1908-12-17 In Turkey the new parliament convenes with reformist Young Turks as the majority
- 1913-01-23 The 'Young Turks' lead a coup d'etat against the Turkish Government
- 1915-01-17 Battle of Sarikamish ends with a Russian victory over Ottoman forces led by Enver Pasha with loss of over 30,000 men of the Turkish Third Army during Caucasus Campaign