Biography: Serving with distinction as an officer in the United States Army in the American-Mexican War and the Seminole Wars, Johnston joined the Confederate Army and became one of its most senior commanders during the American Civil War.
He clashed with Confederate president Jefferson Davis, who often criticized him for his lack of aggressiveness. After a series of military failures, Davis relieved him of command.
- 1863-12-16 Braxton Bragg is replaced by Joseph E. Johnston as commander of the Confederate Army of Tennessee
- 1865-04-18 Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston surrenders to General William T. Sherman in North Carolina