On This Day

Philip II of Spain

King of Spain Philip II of Spain

Profession: King of Spain


Biography: During Philip II's reign, Spain reached the height of its influence and power often referred to as Spain's Golden Age.

The expression, "the empire on which the sun never sets," was coined during his reign to reflect the extent of his dominion which stretched from Europe, to the Americas and Asia.

From 1554 he was also the King of Naples and Sicily as well as the Duke of Milan. During his marriage to Queen Mary I (1554–58), he also became the King of England and Ireland.

Born: May 21, 1527
Birthplace: Valladolid, Spain
Star Sign: Gemini

Died: September 13, 1598 (aged 71)
Cause of Death: Cancer

Married Life

  • 1554-07-25 Mary I of England (37) marries Prince Philip of Spain (27) (later Philip II) at Winchester Cathedral, England
  • 1560-01-31 Spanish King Philip II (10) marries Elisabeth of Valois (13), daughter of Henry II of France

Historical Events

  • 1555-10-25 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V publicly abdicates his roles as Lord of the Netherlands and Duke of Burgundy in favor of his son Philip II of Spain
  • 1556-01-16 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V abdicates his role as King of Spain and appoints his son Philip II of Spain
  • 1556-02-05 King Henry II of France and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V sign the Treaty of Vaucelles, creating a temporary truce in the Italian War of 1551–59
  • 1556-03-28 Philip II of Spain is formally crowned King of Spain
  • 1556-11-23 King Philip II confers with Dutch financial experts
  • 1560-09-25 Spanish King Philip II names Frederik Schenck of Toutenburg as 1st archbishop of Utrecht
  • 1561-09-23 King Philip II of Spain forbids Spanish settlements in Florida
  • 1563-04-23 Cornerstone laid for El Escorial, new Spanish royal palace commissioned by Philip II, by architect Juan Bautista de Toledo
  • 1563-07-29 League of High Nobles routes King Philip II
  • 1564-02-21 Philip II routes Cardinal Granvelle to Franche-Comte
  • 1564-08-18 Spanish King Philip II joins Council of Trente
  • 1565-11-13 King Philip II's "Letters out Segovia" reaches Brussels
  • 1566-12-01 Spanish King Philip II names Fernando Alvarez, duke of Alva
  • 1569-02-07 King Philip II forms Inquisition in South America
  • 1570-03-04 King Philip II bans foreign Dutch students
  • 1572-06-24 Five clergymen of Dutch city Enkhuizen are hanged during the Dutch Rebellion against Philip II of Spain
  • 1579-07-29 Spanish King Philip II arrests plotters Antonio Perez and Princess van Eboli
  • 1580-03-15 Spanish King Philip II puts 25,000 gold coins on head of Prince William of Orange
  • 1581-03-25 Portuguese Cortes calls Philip II King of Portugal
  • 1581-04-01 Portuguese Cortes subjects himself on Philip II
  • 1581-04-15 Cortes van Thomar accepts Philip II as king of Portugal
  • 1590-07-19 King Philip II's secretary Antonio Perez escapes jail
  • 1594-06-11 Philip II recognizes the rights and privileges of local nobles and chieftains in the Philippines, creating a ruling class of native nobility known as the Principalía
  • 1595-05-02 King Philip II names Albrecht of Austria land guardian of Netherlands
  • 1596-11-29 King Philip II devalues Spanish currency
  • 1598-06-30 King Philip II of Spain moves to El Escorial royal palace (dies there three months later)
  • 1598-09-01 Spanish King Philip II receives sacraments

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