Profession: Nazi leader
Why Famous: Originally one of the most powerful Nazi officials, Hess served as Deputy Fuhrer to Adolf Hitler from 1933. Privately disagreeing with the planned invasion of the Soviet Union, and feeling sidelined from major decisions Hitler's government, Hess dramatically escaped to Britain on 10 May 1941 with the intention of opening peace talks with the Duke of Hamilton. He was arrested, held as a prisoner of war and tried at Nuremberg, where he was sentenced to life imprisonment.
At age 93, while the sole remaining Nazi in custody at Spandau Prison, Hess committed suicide.
- 1933-12-01 Rudolf Hess & Ernest Rohm become ministers in Hitler government
- 1941-05-10 Adolf Hitler's deputy Rudolf Hess escapes to Britain to open secret negotiations with the Allies, parachuting into Scotland
- 1941-05-12 Martin Bormann succeeds Rudolf Hess as Hitler's deputy