Biography: Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was a Russian composer of the Romantic period, whose works are among the most popular music in the classical repertoire. Tchaikovsky was the first Russian composer to gain international recognition, and his music was well-received in Europe and the United States. In 1891, he was invited to conduct at the opening of Carnegie Hall in New York City, solidifying his status as a world-renowned composer.
Tchaikovsky studied at the Saint Petersburg Conservatory, where he was taught by the famous Russian composer and pianist Anton Rubinstein. This education helped Tchaikovsky develop his compositional skills and establish connections within the musical world.
Tchaikovsky is best known for his symphonies, ballets, and concertos. His three famous ballets, "Swan Lake," "The Nutcracker," and "Sleeping Beauty," have become staples of the ballet repertoire and are performed worldwide. Other notable works include his Symphony No. 5, Symphony No. 6 "Pathétique," and the 1812 Overture.
His unexpected death at the age of 53, just nine days after the premiere of his Symphony No. 6 "Pathétique," has been the subject of much speculation. While the official cause of death was reported as cholera, some theories suggest suicide due to personal and societal pressures.
- 1877-07-18 Russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (37) weds Antonina Miliukova (29) at the Church of Saint George in Moscow, Russia; separate six weeks later, but ever divorce
- 1875-10-25 The first performance of the Piano Concerto No. 1 by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky is given in Boston, Massachusetts with Hans von Bülow as soloist
- 1876-04-22 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky completes his ballet "Swan Lake"
- 1876-11-17 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's patriotic Slavonic March makes its premiere in Moscow to a warm reception
- 1877-03-04 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's ballet "Swan Lake" has its world premiere, performed by the Bolshoi Ballet in Moscow
- 1878-02-22 Peter Tchaikovsky's 4th Symphony in F premieres at a Russian Musical Society concert in Moscow [February 10 O.S.]
- 1882-08-20 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's "1812 Overture" debuts in Moscow
- 1886-03-23 Tchaikovsky's "Manfred" symphony premieres in Moscow, Russia, conducted by Max Erdmannsdörfer
- 1888-11-17 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky' conducts the premiere of his 5th Symphony at the Mariinsky Theatre in St Petersburg, Russia
- 1891-05-05 Music Hall (now Carnegie Hall) opens in New York City, with Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky as guest conductor of the New York Music Society Orchestra
- 1892-12-18 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's ballet "The Nutcracker" premieres in Saint Petersburg, Russia, now the world's most performed ballet; his final opera "Isolanta" also premieres
- 1893-01-03 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's final opera "Iolanta", is first performed outside of Russia in Hamburg, Germany
- 1893-10-28 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky conducts first performance of his Symphony Number Six in B minor, "Pathetique", in St. Petersburg, Russia, 9 days before his death
- 1895-01-27 Marius Petipa and Lev Ivanov's revival of Pyotr Tchaikovsky's ballet "Swan Lake" premieres in St. Petersburg