Full Name: Vittorio Emanuele Ferdinando Maria Gennaro di Savoia
Profession: King of Italy
Why Famous: Known as the 'little sabre' or the 'little king' due to his diminutive 5ft height, Emmanuel's reign lasted from 1900 until his abdication in 1946. In this time Italy saw the rise of fascism with Benito Mussolini and fought in two world wars.
He appointed Mussolini as prime minister after the fascist March on Rome in 1922 but later spearheaded a coup against him in 1943, which led to the collapse of the fascist regime and the establishment of an armistice with the Allies who had invaded mainland Italy the same year.
The monarchy lost considerable popular support throughout the war. He abdicated in 1946 before a referendum on the abolition of the monarchy, which succeeded. His son, Umberto II, was the last Italian king, having reigned for only 34 days. After this Victor Emmanuel went into exile in Egypt and died in 1947.
- 1904-04-24 President Loubet of France visits King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and pointedly ignores the Pope, exacerbating relations between France and the Roman Catholic Church
- 1943-07-25 Benito Mussolini dismissed as Italian Premier and arrested on the authority of King Victor Emmanuel III
- 1946-05-09 King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy abdicates and is succeeded by his son Umberto II who reigns for only 34 days before the monarchy is abolished