Chemists in History

Chemistry: Alchemists - Biochemists

Historical Events


Historic InventionOxygen Discovered!

1774-08-01 Joseph Priestley, English theologian, chemist and author discovers oxygen by isolating it in its gaseous state
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Illustration of Priestley's discovery of oxygen, by Henry Granger
Illustration of Priestley's discovery of oxygen, by Henry Granger
  • 1827-04-07 English chemist John Walker invents wooden matches

Historic InventionNobel Patents Dynamite

1867-05-07 Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel patents dynamite in England, the first of three patents he would receive for the explosive material
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Alfred Nobel's Dynamite
Alfred Nobel's Dynamite
  • 1879-02-27 Russian Chemist Constantin Fahlberg discovers saccharin (artificial sweetener)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1886-05-29 American chemist John Pemberton begins to advertise Coca-Cola

Pharmacist John Pemberton
Pharmacist
John Pemberton

Nobel prizeNobel Prize

1895-11-27 Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel's will establishes the Nobel Prize

Chemist, Engineer & Innovator Alfred Nobel
Chemist, Engineer & Innovator
Alfred Nobel
  • 1897-08-10 German chemist Felix Hoffman first synthesizes acetylsalicylic acid, which would later be patened by his company Bayer under the name "aspirin"

Nobel prizeNobel Prize

1902-12-10 German organic chemist Emil Fischer is award the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on sugar and purine syntheses

Chemist and Nobel Laureate Emil Fischer
Chemist and Nobel Laureate
Emil Fischer

Nobel prizeNobel Prize

1906-12-10 Frenchman Henri Moissan is presented with the Nobel prize for Chemistry for isolating Fluoride

Chemist and Nobel Laureate Henri Moissan
Chemist and Nobel Laureate
Henri Moissan
  • 1909-07-30 French chemist Eugène Schueller founds L'Oréal with his new range of hair dyes
  • 1909-09-12 World's first patent for synthetic rubber granted to German chemist Fritz Hofmann
  • 1915-11-12 Theodore W Richards is 1st American to win Nobel Prize in chemistry

Nobel prizeNobel Prize

1922-11-09 Frederick Soddy wins the 1921 Nobel Prize in Chemistry (announced in 1922 due to a technicality)

Nobel Laureate Chemist Frederick Soddy
Nobel Laureate Chemist
Frederick Soddy
  • 1922-12-10 Nobel prizes awarded to Niels Bohr (Physics), Francis William Aston (Chemistry) and Fridtjof Nansen (Peace)

Nobel prizeNobel Prize

1930-12-10 German chemist Hans Fischer is awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on haemin

Physicist and Nobel Laureate Hans Fischer
Physicist and Nobel Laureate
Hans Fischer
  • 1934-11-15 Nobel for chemistry awarded to Harold C Urey (deuterium)

Nobel prizeNobel Prize

1935-12-10 Nobel Prize for Chemistry awarded to Irene Joliot-Curie (daughter of Marie Curie) and her husband Frédéric Joliot for the discovery of artificial radioactivity

Physicist/Chemist Irene Joliot-Curie
Physicist/Chemist
Irene Joliot-Curie
  • 1936-12-10 Stockholm: physicist PBJ Debije receives Nobel prize for chemistry

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1941-06-07 Chemists Archer John Porter Martin and Richard L. M. Synge give the first demonstration of partition chromatography (separation of mixtures) at a meeting of the Biochemical Society held at the National Institute for Medical Research, Hampstead

Nobel Prize Winning Chemist Archer John Porter Martin
Nobel Prize Winning Chemist
Archer John Porter Martin

InventionHistoric Invention

1942-02-10 American chemist James Franklin Hyde is granted a patent for fused silica

  • 1943-04-19 Bicycle Day - Swiss chemist Dr. Albert Hofmann deliberately takes LSD for the first time.
  • 1949-09-30 American chemist Percy L. Julian at the Glidden Company announces an improved method for producing cortisone
  • 1950-10-20 Chemists Archer John Porter Martin and James Lovelock give the first demonstration of gas chromatography at a meeting of the Biochemical Society. The technique is rapidly adopted by the petrochemical industry.

Nobel prizeNobel Prize

1954-12-10 Linus Pauling wins Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Chemist & Peace Activist Linus Pauling
Chemist & Peace Activist
Linus Pauling

Nobel prizeNobel Prize

1960-12-10 Willard Libby wins the Nobel prize in Chemistry for his work developing carbon-14 dating (radiocarbon dating).

Chemist Willard Libby
Chemist
Willard Libby

Nobel prizeNobel Prize

1963-12-10 Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta receive the 1963 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their work on the technology of high polymers

Chemist/Nobel Laureate Karl Ziegler
Chemist/Nobel Laureate
Karl Ziegler

Nobel prizeNobel Prize

1964-12-10 Dorothy Hodgkin is the first British woman to be awarded the Nobel prize in Chemistry for work on penicillin and vitamin B12

  • 1965-10-21 Nobel prize for chemistry awarded to Robert B Woodward
  • 1966-12-10 Nobel for chemistry awarded to Robert S. Mulliken
  • 1968-10-30 Nobel prize for chemistry awarded to Lars Onsager (thermodynamics)
  • 1971-01-06 Berkeley chemists announces 1st synthetic growth hormones
  • 1974-10-15 Nobel prize for chemistry awarded to Paul J Flory (macro molecules)
  • 1976-10-18 Nobel prize for chemistry awarded to American William Lipscomb
  • 1984-10-17 Nobel prize for chemistry awarded to Bruce Merrifield
  • 1985-10-16 Nobel prize for chemistry awarded to Herbert Hauptman & Jerome Karle
  • 1988-10-19 3 Americans win Nobel in physics; 3 W Germans win chemistry Nobel

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1993-01-29 US postal service issues a stamp commemorating chemist Percy Lavon Julian

  • 1993-10-13 Nobel prize for chemistry awarded to Kary Mullis & Michael Smith
  • 1997-10-15 Nobel Prize for Chemistry awarded to Jens Christain Skou, Paul D. Boyer and John E. Walker for their work on enzymes in the body

Nobel prizeNobel Prize

2003-10-08 Peter Agre and Roderick MacKinnon win the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes

Molecular biologist Peter Agre
Molecular biologist
Peter Agre

Nobel prizeNobel Prize

2012-10-10 Robert Lefkowitz and Brian Kobilka win the 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for work on G protein-coupled receptors

Physician-scientist Robert Lefkowitz
Physician-scientist
Robert Lefkowitz
Professor Brian Kobilka
Professor
Brian Kobilka
  • 2013-10-09 Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel win the 2013 Nobel Prize in chemistry for their work on multiscale models for complex chemical systems
  • 2014-10-08 Eric Betzig, Stefan Hell and William Moerner win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy
  • 2015-10-07 Nobel prize in Chemistry awarded to Tomas Lindahl (Sweden), Paul Modrich (US) and Aziz Sancar (Turkey) for work on cells DNA repair
  • 2017-10-04 Nobel Prize for Chemistry awarded to Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson for their work on cryo-electron microscopy
  • 2018-10-03 Nobel Prize for Chemistry awarded to Frances H. Arnold, George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter for discoveries in enzyme research
  • 2018-10-03 Nobel Prize for Chemistry awarded to Frances Arnold, Gregory Winter and George Smith for their use of evolution to produce new enzymes and antibodies
  • 2019-10-09 Nobel Prize for Chemistry awarded to John B. Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino for development of lithium-ion batteries, Goodenough oldest-ever winner at 97

Famous Birthdays

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 291

  • 1579-01-12 Jan Baptist van Helmont, Flemish chemist, (found boiling point temperature)
  • 1619-12-17 Prince Rupert of the Rhine, German soldier, Commander in the English Civil War and first Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, born in Prague (d. 1682)
  • 1627-01-25 Robert Boyle, Anglo-Irish natural philosopher & chemist, born in Lismore, Republic of Ireland (d. 1691)
  • 1660-02-19 Friedrich Hoffmann, German physician and chemist (d. 1742)
  • 1672-02-13 Étienne François Geoffroy, French physician and chemist (1718 affinity table), born in Paris (d. 1731)
  • 1677-09-17 Stephen Hales, English physiologist, chemist and inventor (first person to measure blood pressure), born in Bekesbourne, Kent, England (d. 1761)
  • 1694-06-26 Georg Brandt, Swedish chemist and mineralogist, born in Riddarhyttan, Sweden (d. 1768)
  • 1705-04-12 William Cookworthy, English chemist, born in Kingsbridge, Devon (d. 1780)
  • 1709-07-11 Johan Gottschalk Wallerius, Swedish chemist and mineralogist, born in Stora Mellösa, Närke (d. 1785)
  • 1710-04-15 William Cullen, Scottish physician and chemist, born in Hamilton, Lanarkshire, Scotland (d. 1790)
  • 1722-12-23 Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, Turinge, Swedish Chemist who discovered nickel and tungsten
  • 1728-04-16 Joseph Black, Scottish chemist and physicist known for his discoveries of magnesium, latent heat and carbon dioxide, born in Bordeaux, France (d. 1799)
  • 1731-10-10 Henry Cavendish, England, physicist and chemist (discovered hydrogen), born in Nice (d. 1810)
  • 1735-03-20 Torbern Bergman, Swedish chemist (d. 1784)

Person of interestJames Watt

1736-01-19 James Watt, Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer and chemist (steam engine), born in Greenock, Scotland (d. 1819)

Inventor, Engineer and Chemist James Watt
Inventor, Engineer and Chemist
James Watt
  • 1736-08-26 Jean-Baptiste L. Romé de l'Isle, French chemist (d. 1790)
  • 1742-12-09 Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Swedish pharmacist and chemist (lemon acid), born in Stralsund, Swedish Pomerania (d. 1786)
  • 1743-08-26 Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, father of modern chemistry (identified oxygen and hydrogen), born in Paris, France (d. 1794)
  • 1743-12-01 Martin H Klaproth, German chemist (uranium)
  • 1748-12-09 Claude-Louis Berthollet, French chemist, born in Talloires, Savoy, France (d. 1822)
  • 1749-11-03 Daniel Rutherford, Scottish chemist and physician (isolation of nitrogen in 1772), born in Edinburgh, Scotland (d. 1819)
  • 1750-03-20 Martinus van Marum, Dutch chemist/physicist (Homo Diluvii Testus)
  • 1753-04-28 Franz K Achard, German physicist and chemist, born in Berlin (d. 1821)
  • 1755-06-15 Antoine François, comte de Fourcroy, French chemist (d. 1809)
  • 1760-06-05 Johan Gadolin, Finnish chemist (discovered yttrium), born in Turku, Finland (d. 1852)
  • 1763-05-16 Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin, chemist (discovered chromium, beryllium)
  • 1766-08-06 William Hyde Wollaston, English chemist and physicist (famous for discovering the chemical elements palladium and rhodium), born in East Dereham, Norfolk, England (d. 1828)
  • 1768-05-03 Charles Tennant, Scottish chemist and industrialist, born in Laigh Corton, Alloway, Ayrshire, Scotland (d. 1838)
  • 1768-11-30 Jędrzej Śniadecki, Polish writer, physician, chemist (creation of modern Polish terminology in the field of chemistry), born in Żnin, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (d. 1838)
  • 1771-06-03 Charles Bernard Desormes, Dijon, French Physicist and Chemist who determined the ratio of the specific heats of gases as well as the exact composition of carbon monoxide and carbon disulphide
  • 1771-06-24 Éleuthère Irénée du Pont, French-American chemist and industrialist (E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company), born in Paris (d. 1834)
  • 1776-12-29 Charles Macintosh, Scottish chemist and inventor (waterproof fabric), born in Glasgow, Scotland (d. 1843)

Person of interestHans Christian Ørsted

1777-08-14 Hans Christian Ørsted, Danish physicist and chemist (View of Chemical Law), born in Rudkøbing, Denmark (d. 1851)

Physicist, Chemist Hans Christian Ørsted
Physicist, Chemist
Hans Christian Ørsted
  • 1778-12-06 Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, French physicist and chemist, born in Saint-Léonard-de-Noblat, Kingdom of France (d. 1850)
  • 1778-12-17 Humphry Davy, English chemist, studied electro-chemistry, invented the Davy lamp), born in Penzance, Cornwall, England (d. 1829)
  • 1779-08-20 Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Swedish chemist, born in Linköping, Sweden (d. 1848)
  • 1785-04-09 Sibrandus Stratingh, Dutch physician and chemist (electric car), born in Adorp, Netherlands (d. 1841)
  • 1788-01-11 William Thomas Brande, English chemist (d. 1866)
  • 1788-08-02 Leopold Gmelin, German chemist (Gmelin's test), born in Göttingen, Germany (d. 1853)
  • 1792-01-12 Johan August Arfwedson, Swedish chemist (d. 1841)
  • 1792-10-12 Christian Gmelin, German chemist, born in Tübingen, Germany (d. 1860)
  • 1794-01-25 François-Vincent Raspail, French chemist, born in Carpentras, France (d. 1878)
  • 1795-01-06 Anselme Payen, French chemist, born in Paris, France (d. 1871)
  • 1795-02-08 Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge, German chemist (Chinoline), born in Hamburg, Germany (d. 1867)
  • 1796-01-22 Karl Claus, Russian chemist (d. 1864)

Person of interestCharles Goodyear

1800-12-29 Charles Goodyear, US chemist and manufacturing engineer (vulcanized rubber), born in New Haven, Connecticut (d. 1860)

Chemist and Inventor Charles Goodyear
Chemist and Inventor
Charles Goodyear
  • 1802-02-02 Jean-Baptiste JD Boussingault, French chemist
  • 1803-05-12 Justus von Liebig, German agricultural and biological chemist who is considered the founder of organic chemistry, born in Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany (d. 1873)
  • 1805-12-21 Thomas Graham, British chemist and father of colloid chemistry (d. 1869)
  • 1806-06-16 Edward Davy, English physician, chemist, and inventor (d. 1885)
  • 1810-07-21 Henri V. Regnault, French physicist and chemist, born in Aachen (d. 1878)

Person of interestRobert Bunsen

1811-03-30 Robert Bunsen, German chemist who invented the Bunsen Burner, born in Göttingen, Westphalia, Rhine Confederation (d. 1899)

Chemist Robert Bunsen
Chemist
Robert Bunsen
  • 1812-06-09 Hermann von Fehling, German chemist (Fehling's reagens)
  • 1813-08-21 Jean Stas, Belgian chemist, born in Leuven, Belgium (d. 1891)
  • 1813-12-19 Thomas Andrews, Irish chemist and physicist (ozone), born in Belfast (d. 1885)
  • 1816-08-21 Charles Frédéric Gerhardt, French chemist, born in Strasbourg, France (d. 1856)
  • 1817-02-02 John Glover, English chemist (sulfuric acid), born in Newcastle-on-Tyne, England (d. 1902)
  • 1817-10-24 Hippolyte Mège-Mouriés, French chemist and inventor of margarine, born in Draguignan, France (d. 1880)
  • 1817-10-30 Hermann Kopp, German chemist (Jahresbericht of Chemistry), born in Hanau, Hesse-Kassel, Germany (d. 1892)
  • 1819-07-02 Thomas Anderson, Scottish chemist (discovered pyridine), born in Leith, Scotland (d. 1874)
  • 1822-06-13 Carl Schmidt, Baltic German chemist, born in Mitau, Russian Empire (d. 1884)
  • 1825-01-18 Edward Frankland, Lancaster, U.K, British structural chemist who co-discovered helium and developed the theory of valence
  • 1825-06-28 Emil Erlenmeyer, German chemist (Erlenmeyer flask), born in Wehen, Duchy of Nassau (d. 1909)
  • 1826-07-13 Stanislao Cannizzaro, Italian chemist (Reaction of Cannizzaro)
  • 1827-07-17 Frederick Able, English chemist and inventor (cordiet), born in Woolwich, England (d. 1902)
  • 1827-10-29 Marcellin Berthelot, French chemist (Thomsen–Berthelot principle of thermochemistry), born in Paris (d. 1907)
  • 1828-09-15 Aleksandr Mikhailovich Butlerov, Russian chemist (discoverer of hexamine (1859)), born in Chistopol, Kazan Governorate, Russian Empire (d. 1886)
  • 1829-09-07 August Kekule von Stradonitz, German chemist who discovered structure of benzene ring, born in Darmstadt, Hesse (d. 1896)
  • 1830-05-10 Francois M Raoult, French physicist/chemist (law of Raoult)
  • 1830-08-19 Julius Lothar Meyer, German Chemist who developed the first periodic table of chemical elements independently of Dimitri Mendeleev, born in Varel Oldenburg (d. 1895)
  • 1830-11-03 Jacob Maarten van Bemmelen, Dutch physicist and chemist, born in Almelo, Netherlands (d. 1911)
  • 1831-03-31 Archibald Scott, Scottish chemist
  • 1832-06-17 William Crookes, English chemist and physicist (Crookes-pipe, thallium), born in London (d. 1919)
  • 1833-01-07 Henry Enfield Roscoe, English Chemist (vanadium and photochemistry), born in London, England

Person of interestAlfred Nobel

1833-10-21 Alfred Nobel, Swedish chemist who invented dynamite and founded the Nobel Prizes, born in Stockholm, Sweden (d. 1896)

Chemist, Engineer & Innovator Alfred Nobel
Chemist, Engineer & Innovator
Alfred Nobel

Person of interestDmitri Mendeleev

1834-02-08 Dmitri Mendeleev, Russian chemist and inventor who devised the periodic table of the elements, born in Tobolsk, Russia (d. 1907)

Chemist and Inventor Dmitri Mendeleev
Chemist and Inventor
Dmitri Mendeleev
  • 1835-10-31 Adolf von Baeyer, German chemist (Nobel 1905), born in Berlin (d. 1917)
  • 1835-12-06 Rudolf Fittig, German chemist (synthesizing organic compounds), born in Hamburg, Germany (d. 1910)
  • 1836-05-28 Alexander Mitscherlich, German chemist and son of Eilhard Mitscherlich, born in Berlin (d. 1918)
  • 1836-08-11 Cato M. Guldberg, Norwegian mathematician and chemist (law of mass action), born in Christiania, Norway (d. 1902)
  • 1839-02-11 Josiah Willard Gibbs, theoretical physicist/chemist
  • 1839-03-08 James Mason Crafts, American chemist (Friedel-Crafts alkylation synthesis), born in Boston, Massachusetts (d. 1917)
  • 1842-06-11 Carl von Linde, German engineer and chemist who invented mechanical refrigeration, born in Berndorf, Germany (d. 1934)
  • 1842-09-20 James Dewar, Scottish chemist and physicist (Dewarfles/cordiet), born in Kincardine-on-Forth, Scotland (d. 1923)
  • 1842-10-01 Charles Cros, French inventor and poet (Le Hareng Saur), born in Fabrezan, France (d. 1888)
  • 1842-12-03 Ellen Henrietta Richards, American chemist (Amer Home Economics Association-1st Pres), born in Dunstable, Massachusetts (d. 1911)
  • 1843-10-22 Stephen Babcock, American agricultural chemist (Babcock test and father of scientific dairying), born in Oneida County, New York (d. 1931)
  • 1844-10-18 Harvey W. Wiley, American chemist known for leadership in the passage of the landmark Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, born in Kent, Indiana (d. 1930)
  • 1846-02-10 Ira Remsen, American chemist (d. 1927)
  • 1847-03-04 Karl Bayer, Austrian chemist (d. 1904)
  • 1847-03-27 Otto Wallach, German chemist (Nobel 1910), born in Königsberg, Germany (d. 1931)
  • 1850-10-08 Henri Louis le Chatelier, French chemist, born in Paris (d. 1936)
  • 1850-12-22 Constantin Fahlberg, Russian chemist who discovered Saccharin (artificial sweetener), born in Tambov, Russia (d. 1910)
  • 1852-01-01 Eugène-Anatole Demarçay, French chemist (d. 1904)
  • 1852-08-30 Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff, Dutch physical chemist (Nobel 1901), born in Rotterdam, Netherlands (d. 1911)

Person of interestHenri Moissan

1852-09-28 Henri Moissan, French chemist who isolated the element "fluorine" from its compounds (Nobel 1906), born in Paris (d. 1907)

Chemist and Nobel Laureate Henri Moissan
Chemist and Nobel Laureate
Henri Moissan
  • 1852-10-02 William Ramsay, Scottish chemist who discovered noble gases (Nobel 1904), born in Glasgow, Scotland (d. 1916)

Person of interestEmil Fischer

1852-10-09 [Hermann] Emil Fischer, German chemist, discovered Fischer esterification (Nobel Prize 1902), born in Euskirchen, Rhine Province (d. 1919)

Chemist and Nobel Laureate Emil Fischer
Chemist and Nobel Laureate
Emil Fischer
  • 1853-09-02 Wilhelm Ostwald, German physical chemist (Nobel 1909)
  • 1854-10-24 Hendrik Willem Bakhuis Roozeboom, Dutch chemist (Heterogenen Gleichgewichte), born in Alkmaar, Netherlands (d. 1907)

Famous Weddings


LoveWedding of Interest

1862-04-27 Chemist Dmitri Mendeleev (28) weds Feozva Nikitichna Leshcheva at Nikolaev Engineering Institute's church in Saint Petersburg, Russia

Chemist and Inventor Dmitri Mendeleev
Chemist and Inventor
Dmitri Mendeleev

LoveWedding of Interest

1895-07-26 Physicist and chemist Marie Curie (27) weds physicist Pierre Curie (36) in Sceaux, France

Physicist Marie Curie
Physicist
Marie Curie

LoveWedding of Interest

1923-06-17 Chemist Linus Pauling (22) weds Ava Helen Miller

Chemist & Peace Activist Linus Pauling
Chemist & Peace Activist
Linus Pauling

LoveWedding of Interest

1926-10-04 Chemist Irene Joliot-Curie (29) weds physicist Frédéric Joliot (26) in Paris, France

Physicist/Chemist Irene Joliot-Curie
Physicist/Chemist
Irene Joliot-Curie

LoveWedding of Interest

1935-12-24 Chemist Percy Lavon Julian weds sociologist Anna Roselle Johnson

LoveWedding of Interest

1939-09-30 Nobel Prize-winning author William Golding (28) weds analytic chemist Ann Brookfield

Nobel Laureate and Novelist William Golding
Nobel Laureate and Novelist
William Golding

LoveWedding of Interest

1985-06-21 Chemist Carl Djerassi (61) weds biographer and teacher Diane Middlebrook (46) at his ranch

Chemist Carl Djerassi
Chemist
Carl Djerassi

LoveWedding of Interest

1998-12-30 Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel (44) weds quantum chemist Joachim Sauer (49) in Bonn, Germany

Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel
Chancellor of Germany
Angela Merkel

Famous Deaths

Deaths 1 - 100 of 252

  • 1633-11-07 Cornelis Drebbel, physicist/chemist/inventor (builder of the first submarine), dies
  • 1644-12-30 Jan Baptist van Helmont, Flemish chemist (b. 1577)
  • 1670-03-10 Johann Rudolf Glauber, German chemist (b. 1604)
  • 1731-01-06 Étienne François Geoffroy, French physician and chemist (1718 affinity table), dies at 58
  • 1734-05-24 Georg Ernst Stahl, German physician and chemist (b. 1660)
  • 1742-11-12 Friedrich Hoffmann, German physician and chemist (b. 1660)
  • 1761-01-04 Stephen Hales, English physiologist, chemist and inventor (first person to measure blood pressure), dies at 83
  • 1765-08-19 Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, Swedish Chemist who discovered nickel and tungsten, dies at 42
  • 1768-04-29 Georg Brandt, Swedish chemist and minerologist, dies at 73
  • 1780-10-17 William Cookworthy, English chemist, dies at 75
  • 1784-07-08 Torbern Bergman, Swedish chemist (b. 1735)
  • 1785-11-16 Johan Gottschalk Wallerius, Swedish chemist and mineralogist, dies at 76
  • 1786-05-21 Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Swedish pharmacist and chemist (lemon acid), dies of mercury poisoning at 43
  • 1790-02-05 William Cullen, Scottish physician and chemist, dies at 79
  • 1794-05-08 Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, father of modern chemistry (identified oxygen and hydrogen), guillotined at 50
  • 1799-12-06 Joseph Black, Scottish chemist and physicist known for his discoveries of magnesium, latent heat and carbon dioxide, dies at 71
  • 1804-02-06 Joseph Priestley, English American theologist, philosopher and chemist who discovered oxygen, dies at 70
  • 1809-12-16 Antoine François, comte de Fourcroy, French chemist (b. 1755)
  • 1810-02-24 Henry Cavendish, British physicist and chemist (discovery of hydrogen), dies at 78
  • 1817-01-01 Martin Heinrich Klaproth, German chemist (uranium), dies at 73

Person of interestJames Watt

1819-08-25 James Watt, Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer and chemist (steam engine), dies at 83

Inventor, Engineer and Chemist James Watt
Inventor, Engineer and Chemist
James Watt
  • 1819-11-15 Daniel Rutherford, Scottish chemist and physician (isolation of nitrogen in 1772), dies at 70
  • 1821-04-20 Franz K Achard, German physicist and chemist, dies at 67
  • 1822-11-06 Claude-Louis Berthollet, French chemist, dies at 73
  • 1828-12-22 William Hyde Wollaston, English chemist and physicist (famous for discovering the chemical elements palladium and rhodium), dies at 62
  • 1829-05-29 Humphry Davy, English chemist, studied electro-chemistry, invented the Davy lamp), dies at 50
  • 1832-07-30 Jean-A-C Chaptal, French chemist/Internal minister, dies
  • 1834-10-31 Éleuthère Irénée du Pont, French-American chemist and industrialist (E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company), dies at 63
  • 1837-12-26 Martinus van Marum, chemist/physicist (giant salamander), dies at 87
  • 1838-10-01 Charles Tennant, Scottish chemist and industrialist, dies at 70
  • 1841-02-15 Sibrandus Stratingh, Dutch phyisican and chemist (electrical car), dies at 53
  • 1841-10-28 Johan August Arfwedson, Swedish chemist (b. 1792)
  • 1843-07-25 Charles Macintosh, Scottish chemist and inventor (b. 1766)

Person of interestJohn Dalton

1844-07-27 John Dalton, English physicist and chemist who developed the atomic theory of matter and researched colour blindness, dies at 77

Chemist, Physicist and Meteorologist John Dalton
Chemist, Physicist and Meteorologist
John Dalton
  • 1845-04-18 Nicolas Théodore de Saussure, Swiss chemist, dies at 77
  • 1848-08-07 Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Swedish chemist, dies at 68
  • 1850-04-09 William Prout, physician/chemist, dies
  • 1850-05-09 Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, French physicist & chemist, dies at 71
  • 1852-08-15 Johan Gadolin, Finnish chemist (discovered yttrium), dies at 92
  • 1853-04-13 Leopold Gmelin, German chemist (Gmelin's test), dies at 64
  • 1853-04-23 Auguste Laurent, chemist, dies
  • 1854-04-15 Arthur Aikin, English scientist & writer (b. 1773)
  • 1856-08-19 Charles Frédéric Gerhardt, French chemist, dies at 39
  • 1860-05-13 Christian Gmelin, German chemist, dies at 67

Person of interestCharles Goodyear

1860-07-01 Charles Goodyear, American chemist and manufacturing engineer who invented the vulcanization process for rubber, dies at 59

Chemist and Inventor Charles Goodyear
Chemist and Inventor
Charles Goodyear
  • 1862-08-30 Charles Bernard Desormes, French Physicist and Chemist (carbon monoxide and carbon disulphide compositions), dies at 91
  • 1867-03-25 Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge, German chemist (Chinoline), dies at 72
  • 1870-04-04 Heinrich Gustav Magnus, German chemist and physicist (b. 1802)
  • 1873-04-18 Justus von Liebig, German agricultural & biological chemist who is considered the founder of organic chemistry, dies at 69
  • 1874-11-02 Thomas Anderson, Scottish chemist (discovered pyridine), dies at 55
  • 1878-01-07 François-Vincent Raspail, French chemist (b. 1794)
  • 1878-01-19 Henri V. Regnault, French physicist and chemist, dies at 67
  • 1880-05-31 Hippolyte Mège-Mouriés, French chemist and inventor of margarine, dies at 62
  • 1885-07-01 Hermann von Fehling, German chemist (Fehling's reagens), dies at 73
  • 1885-11-26 Thomas Andrews, Irish chemist and physicist (ozone), dies at 71
  • 1886-08-17 Aleksandr Mikhailovich Butlerov, Russian chemist (discoverer of hexamine (1859)), dies at 57
  • 1887-05-11 Jean Baptiste Boussingault, French chemist, dies at 85
  • 1888-08-09 Charles Cros, French inventor and poet (Le Hareng Saur), dies at 45
  • 1889-04-09 Michel Eugène Chevreul, French chemist (b. 1786)
  • 1889-04-19 Warren De La Rue, astronomer/chemist, dies
  • 1892-02-20 Hermann Kopp, German chemist (Law of Kopp), dies at 74
  • 1892-03-01 Archibald Scott, Scottish chemist, dies at 60
  • 1892-05-05 August Wilhelm von Hofmann, German chemist (b. 1818)
  • 1895-04-11 Julius Lothar Meyer, German Chemist, dies at 64
  • 1896-07-13 August Kekule von Stradonitz, German chemist who discovered structure of benzene ring, dies at 66

Person of interestAlfred Nobel

1896-12-10 Alfred Nobel, Swedish chemist who invented dynamite and founded the Nobel Prize ceremony on this date, dies at 63

Chemist, Engineer & Innovator Alfred Nobel
Chemist, Engineer & Innovator
Alfred Nobel
  • 1899-08-09 Edward Frankland, British structural chemist who co-discovered helium and developed the theory of valence, dies on holiday in Norway at 74

Person of interestRobert Bunsen

1899-08-16 Robert Bunsen, German chemist who invented the Bunsen Burner, dies at 88

Chemist Robert Bunsen
Chemist
Robert Bunsen
  • 1901-04-01 Francois M Raoult, Fren physicist/chemist (Law of Raoult), dies at 70
  • 1902-01-14 Cato M. Guldberg, Norwegian mathematician and chemist (law of mass action), dies at 65
  • 1902-05-01 John Glover, English chemist (production sulfuric acid), dies at 85
  • 1902-09-06 Frederick Able, English chemist and inventor (cordiet), dies at 75
  • 1904-10-04 Karl Bayer, Austrian chemist (b. 1847)

Person of interestDmitri Mendeleev

1907-02-02 Dmitri Mendeleev, Russian chemist and inventor who devised the periodic table of the elements, dies at 72

Chemist and Inventor Dmitri Mendeleev
Chemist and Inventor
Dmitri Mendeleev
  • 1907-02-08 Hendrik Willem Bakhuis Roozeboom, Dutch chemist (fasenleer), dies at 52

Person of interestHenri Moissan

1907-02-20 Henri Moissan, French chemist who isolated the element "fluorine" from its compounds (Nobel 1906), dies of appendicitis at 54

Chemist and Nobel Laureate Henri Moissan
Chemist and Nobel Laureate
Henri Moissan
  • 1907-03-18 Marcellin Berthelot, French chemist (Thomsen–Berthelot principle of thermochemistry), dies at 79
  • 1907-07-14 William Henry Perkin, English chemist and inventor (b. 1838)
  • 1909-01-22 Emil Erlenmeyer, German chemist (Erlenmeyer flask), dies at 83
  • 1910-05-10 Stanislao Cannizzaro, Italian chemist, dies at 85
  • 1910-11-19 Rudolf Fittig, German chemist (synthesizing organic compounds), dies at 74
  • 1911-03-01 Jacobus H van 't Hoff, Dutch chemist/physicist (Nobel 1901), dies at 58
  • 1911-03-13 Jacob Maarten van Bemmelen, Dutch physicist and chemist, dies at 80
  • 1914-05-27 Joseph Swan, English physicist and chemist ( incandescent light bulb), dies at 85
  • 1914-12-27 Charles Martin Hall, American chemist and inventor, dies at 51
  • 1915-05-02 Clara Immerwahr, German chemist, first woman to be awarded a doctorate in chemistry in Germany, dies at 44
  • 1915-08-15 Constantin Fahlberg, Russian chemist who discovered Saccharin (artificial sweetener), dies at 59
  • 1915-12-18 Henry Enfield Roscoe, English Chemist, dies at 82
  • 1916-07-23 William Ramsay, Scottish chemist who discovered noble gases (Nobel 1904), dies at 63
  • 1916-12-31 Alice Ball, African American chemist (developed treatment for leprosy), dies at 24
  • 1917-06-20 James Mason Crafts, American chemist (Friedel-Crafts alkylation synthesis), dies at 78
  • 1917-08-20 JFW Adolf Ritter von Baeyer, German chemist (Nobel 1905), dies
  • 1918-05-31 Alexander Mitscherlich, German chemist and son of Eilhard Mitscherlich, dies at 82
  • 1919-04-04 William Crookes, English chemist and physicist (Crookes-pipe, thallium), dies at 86

Person of interestEmil Fischer

1919-07-15 [Hermann] Emil Fischer, German chemist, discovered Fischer esterification (Nobel Prize 1902), commits suicide at 66

Chemist and Nobel Laureate Emil Fischer
Chemist and Nobel Laureate
Emil Fischer
  • 1919-11-15 Alfred Werner, Swiss chemist (Nobel 1913), dies at 52
  • 1922-07-22 Jokichi Takamine, Japanese-American biochemist who isolated adrenalin (epinephrine), which causes the body to respond to emergencies, the first pure hormone isolated from natural sources, dies at 67
  • 1922-07-22 John Motley Morehead III, American chemist (commercial production of calcium carbide, important for welding), dies at 67
  • 1923-03-27 James Dewar, Scottish chemist and physicist (Dewarfles/cordiet), dies at 80
  • 1923-05-20 Hans Goldschmidt, German chemist, dies