Medical Science in History

Medical: Diseases - Surgery - Viruses

Historical Events

Historic Event

1527-06-24 Paracelsus publicly burns standard medical textbooks in Basle as a protest against the current teaching and practice of medicine

  • 1582-12-15 Leidse university names Rembert Dodoens professor of botany and medicine
  • 1677-01-21 1st medical publication in America (pamphlet on smallpox), published in Boston
  • 1680-08-10 Tewa medicine man, Popé, leads the Pueblo Rebellion against Spanish colonizers in the New Mexican Province, killing 400 and driving out another 2,000
  • 1760-06-10 NY passes 1st effective law regulating practice of medicine
  • 1765-05-03 1st North American medical college opens in Philadelphia
  • 1768-06-21 1st medical diploma in America is granted to Dr John Archer from the College of Philadelphia
  • 1772-09-26 New Jersey passes bill requiring a license to practise medicine
  • 1818-04-14 US Medical Corps forms
  • 1847-05-05 American Medical Association organized (Philadelphia)
  • 1847-05-07 American Medical Association organizes (Philadelphia)
  • 1848-10-16 1st US homeopathic medical college opens in Pennsylvania
  • 1848-11-01 Classes begin at Boston Female Medical College, 1st US female medical college
  • 1848-11-23 Female Medical Educational Society forms in Boston

Historic Event

1849-01-23 Elizabeth Blackwell becomes 1st woman in the US to earn a medical degree graduating from New York's Geneva Medical College

  • 1850-03-11 Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania opens, 2nd female medical school in the US
  • 1863-03-19 Confederate cruiser SS Georgiana destroyed on her maiden voyage with a cargo of munitions, and medicines then valued over $1,000,000. Wreck discovered exactly 102 years later by teenage diver and pioneer underwater archaeologist E. Lee Spence.
  • 1863-10-26 International conference begins in Geneva aimed at improving medical conditions on battlefields - beginning of the Red Cross
  • 1864-03-01 Rebecca Lee in the US becomes 1st African American woman to receive a medical degree
  • 1867-07-17 1st US dental school, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, established

Historic Event

1869-06-21 William James 'the Father of American Psychology' passes his medical examination at Harvard Medical School

  • 1873-02-20 University of California gets its first Medical School (UC/San Francisco)
  • 1876-11-07 Meharry Medical College forms at Central Tennessee College
  • 1880-07-16 Dr. Emily Stowe becomes the first woman licenced to practise medicine in Canada.
  • 1884-04-24 National Medical Association of Black physicians organizes in Atlanta
  • 1892-12-30 Dr Miles V Lynk, physician, publishes 1st Black medical journal

Scientific Discovery

1896-01-05 "Die Presse" newspaper (Germany) publicly announces Wilhelm Röntgen's discovery of X-rays and their potential for new methods of medical diagnoses in a front-page article

The Story of Writer O. Henry’s Short Life

1898-03-25 Writer O. Henry sentenced to 5 years in prison for embezzling $854 from a bank reportedly to pay for his sick wife's medical bills. Goes on to write many classics while in jail including "Whistling Dick's Christmas Stocking".

Nobel Prize

1904-12-10 Ivan Pavlov awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for work on the physiology of digestion, first Russian to win a Nobel Prize

  • 1907-12-10 The worst night of the Brown Dog riots in London, when 1,000 medical students clash with 400 police officers over the existence of a memorial for animals who have been vivisected.
  • 1916-12-14 America's first board certified doctors are named by the American Board of Ophthalmology following an examination at the University of Tennessee Medical School in Memphis, Tennessee
  • 1920-08-20 Israel publishes its first medical journal "Ha-Refuah"

Nobel Prize

1920-12-10 August Krogh is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the regulation mechanisms of capillaries in skeletal muscle

  • 1924-10-24 Nobel prize for physiology or medicine awarded to Dutchman Willem Einthoven "for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"
  • 1929-02-19 Medical diathermy machine 1st used in Schenectady, NY

Nobel Prize

1929-12-10 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine jointly awarded to Christiaan Eijkman and Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins for the discovery of vitamins

  • 1936-12-24 1st radioactive isotope medicine administered in Berkeley, California
  • 1937-02-24 1st US group hospital-medical cooperative authorized, Washington, D.C.
  • 1937-07-05 117°F (47°C), Medicine Lake, Montana (state record)
  • 1938-04-12 1st US law requiring medical tests for marriage licenses (NY)
  • 1939-05-14 Lina Medina of Peru becomes the world's youngest confirmed mother in medical history at the age of five

Historic Event

1941-06-07 Chemists Archer John Porter Martin and Richard L. M. Synge give the first demonstration of partition chromatography (separation of mixtures) at a meeting of the Biochemical Society held at the National Institute for Medical Research, Hampstead

  • 1947-10-23 Husband & wife Carl Cori & Gerty Cori are 1st spouses to be awarded joint Nobel Prizes for Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen" (alongside Bernardo Alberto Houssay)

Nobel Prize

1947-12-10 American physiologists Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Gasser presented with Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in Stockholm (awarded 1944), for research into nerve function

  • 1948-04-13 Hadassah Convoy Massacre: Vehicles bringing Jewish staff and medical supplies to Hadassah Hospital and University on Mount Scopus, Jerusalem attacked by Arab forces; 79 killed by bombs, grenades, and sniper fire
  • 1948-12-03 1st US woman army officer not in medical corps sworn in
  • 1949-06-23 First twelve women graduate from Harvard Medical School
  • 1950-03-08 1st woman medical officer assigned to naval vessel (BR Walters)
  • 1954-05-24 Dr Peter Murray Marshall becomes 1st African American to head an American Medical Association unit (New York County)
  • 1954-06-13 Cornerstone of Albert Einstein College of Medicine laid in Bronx
  • 1957-06-27 The British Medical Research Council publishes a report suggesting a direct link between smoking and lung cancer.
  • 1958-02-11 BBC pioneering series "Your Life in Their Hands" first broadcast presented by Dr. Charles Fletcher, 1st major TV series to deal with medicine
  • 1960-12-10 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine awarded to Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet and Peter Medawar for work on tissue grafting

Historic Event

1961-02-01 British minister Enoch Powell makes medical insurance more expensive

  • 1961-09-28 American medical drama series "Dr. Kildare", starring Richard Chamberlain and Raymond Massey, premieres on NBC-TV
  • 1961-10-02 American medical drama series "Ben Casey", starring Vince Edwards and Sam Jaffe, premieres on ABC-TV

Historic Event

1961-12-23 Fidel Castro announces Cuba will release 1,113 prisoners from failed 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion for $62M worth of food & medical supplies

Nobel Prize

1962-10-18 James Watson (US), Francis Crick (UK) and Maurice Wilkins (UK) win the Nobel Prize for Medicine for their work in determining the structure of DNA [1]

  • 1966-03-21 American medical drama series "Ben Casey", starring Vince Edwards and Sam Jaffe, ends a five season run on ABC-TV
  • 1966-08-30 American medical drama series "Dr. Kildare", starring Richard Chamberlain and Raymond Massey, ends a five season run on NBC-TV

Nobel Prize

1967-12-10 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine awarded to Ragnar Granit, Haldan Keffer Hartline and George Wald "for discoveries about the make-up of the eye

  • 1974-06-01 The Heimlich maneuver for rescuing choking victims is published in the journal Emergency Medicine
  • 1978-06-28 Supreme Court orders Cal medical school to admit Allan Bakke a white man claiming reverse discrimination when application was rejected
  • 1978-09-11 The last known person dies of smallpox - medical photographer Janet Parker through infection in a laboratory, in Birmingham, England
  • 1979-10-11 Allan McLeod Cormack & Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield win Nobel Prize for medicine for developing CAT scan

Historic Event

1979-10-22 Deposed Shah of Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi arrives in NYC for medical treatment

Historic Event

1980-06-12 Ronald Reagan says he will submit to periodic medical tests

  • 1981-06-18 The AIDS epidemic is formally recognized by medical professionals in San Francisco, California

Sports History

1982-01-05 Star center Darryl Sittler leaves the Toronto Maple Leafs on medical advice because of mental depression; trade request was taking too long

  • 1984-07-10 Prolific studio drummer Jim Gordon convicted of murdering his mother and sentenced 16 years to life in prison. Diagnosed with schizophrenia after the killing, he is serving time in a medical / psychiatric prison, and has been denied parole 10 times as of 2018. [1]
  • 1986-12-17 Mrs Davina Thompson makes medical history by having the 1st heart, lung & liver transplant at Papworth Hospital in Cambridge, England
  • 1996-04-23 US docuseries "Forensic Files" (Medical Detectives) premieres on TLC Network
  • 1997-06-04 UN Security renews its "oilforfood" initiative whereby Iraq may sell $2 billion worth of oil to buy food, medicine and other necessities to alleviate civilian suffering under the sanctions imposed when it invaded Kuwait in 1990
  • 1997-09-25 Medical drama "ER" is performed live on TV
  • 1997-11-16 After nearly 18 years of incarceration, the People's Republic of China releases Wei Jingsheng, a pro-democracy dissident, from jail for medical reasons.

Nobel Prize

1998-12-10 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine presented to Gertrude B. Elion, George H. Hitchings and James W. Black for development of new drugs

  • 1999-01-14 Mel Lastman, Mayor of Toronto, calls in the Army to help with snow removal and emergency medical evacuations after major snowstorm hits the city

Television Debut

2005-03-27 TV medical drama "Grey's Anatomy" created by Shonda Rhimes starring Ellen Pompeo and Sandra Oh debuts on ABC

  • 2005-06-06 The United States Supreme Court votes to ban medical marijuana in Gonzales v. Raich.
  • 2008-10-08 Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology awarded jointly to Harald zur Hausen (cause of cervical cancer) and Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, Luc Montagnier (discovery of HIV)
  • 2009-11-05 US Army Major Nidal Malik Hasan (US Army Medical Corps) killed 13 and wounded 43 at Fort Hood, Texas in the largest mass shooting ever at a US military installation.
  • 2010-05-24 Andrew Wakefield, doctor at the center of MMR vaccination scare, struck off the UK medical register after being found guilty of serious professional misconduct

Election of Interest

2011-11-18 Former Filipino President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is arrested and held at Veterans Memorial Medical Center in Quezon City under charges of electoral sabotage

Film & TV History

2011-12-11 Jeopardy! host Alex Trebek suffers a minor heart attack in his home and is admitted to Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

Nobel Prize

2012-10-08 John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka win the 2012 Nobel Prize for Medicine for their work on reprogramming end stage cells to become pluripotent

  • 2013-10-07 James Rothman, Randy Schekman and  Thomas C. Südhof win the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work on transport systems in cells
  • 2014-07-09 Spokesperson for Medical Aid for Palestinians claims that at least 7 children have been killed by Israeli air strikes
  • 2014-08-27 Medical charity Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) calls the international response to Ebola “irresponsible” and “slow and derisory”
  • 2014-10-06 John O'Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser win the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 2015-06-22 JAMA Internal Medical Journal announces obese Americans now outnumber those just overweight
  • 2015-08-14 Most extensive face transplant surgery ever performed on Patrick Hardison by Dr. Eduardo Rodriguez at New York University Langone Medical Center

Farm Aid Concert

2015-09-19 Farm Aid (30th Anniversary) held in Chicago, Illinois; performers include Willie Nelson, John Mellencamp, Neil Young, Dave Matthews, Imagine Dragons, Jack Johnson, Kacey Musgraves, Old Crow Medicine Show, and Mavis Staples [1]

  • 2015-10-05 Nobel prize for Medicine awarded to William C. Campbell, Satoshi Ōmura (Roundworm) and Youyou Tu (Malaria)

Historic Event

2016-09-21 Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg and his wife Priscilla Chan pledge $3 billion to medical research to "cure, prevent or manage all diseases by the end of the century"

  • 2016-10-03 Yoshinori Ohsumi from Japan wins Nobel Prize for Medicine for research into autophagy
  • 2017-08-10 Scientists study identifying nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) deficiency major cause of miscarriages and multiple birth defects published in "New England Journal of Medicine"
  • 2017-10-02 US scientists Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael Young awarded Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine for work on the body clock
  • 2017-11-07 Extreme smog in Delhi, India, leads Indian Medical Association to declare "a state of medical emergency"
  • 2018-08-02 Tokyo Medical University revealed to have been tampering with female entrance exams to ensure under 30% accepted, by Japanese newspaper "Yomiuri Shimbun"
  • 2018-10-01 Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology awarded to James Allison and Tasuku Honjo for cancer treatment innovations

Famous Birthdays

  • 1633-10-04 Bernardino Ramazzini, Italian physician (founder of occupational medicine), born in Carpi, duchy of Modena (d. 1714)
  • 1704-12-08 Anton de Haen, Austrian medical expert (Ratio Medendi), born in The Hague, Netherlands (d. 1776)
  • 1715-11-13 Dorothea Erxleben, German first female medical doctor, born in Quedlinburg, Germany (d. 1762)
  • 1735-06-10 John Morgan, American physician-in-chief of Continental Army and co-founder of the Medical College at the University of Pennsylvania, the first medical school in Colonial America, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1789)
  • 1741-05-05 John Archer, American Congressman who received the 1st medical diploma issued on US continent (1768), born near Churchville, Maryland (d. 1810)
  • 1754-03-04 Benjamin Waterhouse, American physician co-founder of Harvard Medical School, and smallpox vaccine pioneer,, born in Newport, Rhode Island (d. 1846)
  • 1758-09-26 Cosme Argerich, Argentine physician and founder of the Medicine School of Buenos Aires, born in Buenos Aires, Argentina (d. 1820)
  • 1786-09-18 Justinus Kerner, German physician and medical writer (first detailed description of botulism), born in Ludwigsburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany (d. 1862)
  • 1815-01-21 Horace Wells, dentist (pioneered use of medical anethesia)
  • 1815-08-04 Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich, Sulz am Neckar, German Physician and advocate of scientific medicine
  • 1818-07-01 Ignaz Semmelweis, Hungarian physician who discovered the cause of puerperal (childbed) fever and introduced antisepsis into medical practice, born in Budapest, Hungary (d. 1865)

Elizabeth BlackwellElizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910)

1821-02-03 English-American physician who was the first woman to receive a medical degree in the United States, born in Bristol, England

  • 1827-04-08 Ramón Emeterio Betances, Puerto Rican politician, medical doctor and diplomat, born in Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico (d. 1898)
  • 1831-05-01 Emily Stowe, Canadian suffragist and first woman licensed to practise medicine in Canada, born in Norwich Township, Oxford County, Ontario (d. 1903)
  • 1833-10-17 Paul Bert, French Zoologist, Physiologist and pioneer of aerospace medicine whose study of the effects of air pressure on the body, such as altitude sickness and 'the bends', made possible space and ocean exploration, born in Auxerre, Burgundy (d. 1886)
  • 1840-01-21 Sophia Louisa Jex-Blake, Hastings, English Physician and feminist who was one of the first female medical students at a British university

Camillo GolgiCamillo Golgi (1843-1926)

1843-07-07 Italian physician and medical researcher (Nobel Prize in Medicine-1906), born in Corteno, Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, Austrian Empire

  • 1844-10-03 Patrick Manson, Scottish physician and parasitologist (Father of tropical medicine), born in Oldmeldrum, Aberdeenshire, Scotland (d. 1922)
  • 1845-06-18 Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, French physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1922)
  • 1850-08-26 Charles Richet, French physiologist (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1913 for work on anaphylaxis), born in Paris, France (d. 1935)
  • 1851-09-16 Emilia Pardo Bazán, Spanish countess and writer (Pascual López: Autobiography of a Medical Student), born in La Coruña, Spain (d. 1921)
  • 1852-05-01 Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Spanish histologist (central nervous system) and neuroscientist (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906), born in Petilla de Aragón, Navarre, Spain (d. 1934)
  • 1857-09-08 Ida Henrietta Hyde, American physiologist who invented the micro-electrode and the first woman allowed to do research at Harvard Medical School and to be elected to the American Physiology Society, born in Davenport, Iowa (d. 1945)

Christiaan EijkmanChristiaan Eijkman (1858-1930)

1858-08-11 Dutch physician and bacteriologist (Nobel Prize in Medicine 1929), born in Nijkerk, Netherlands

  • 1860-05-21 Willem Einthoven, Dutch physiologist and inventor of the electrocardiodiogram (Nobel Prize in Medicine 1924), born in Semarang, Dutch East Indies (d. 1927)
  • 1860-12-15 Niels Ryberg Finsen, Danish-Farosese physician and phototherapist (Nobel Prize for Medicine 1903 for treatment for Lupus), born in Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (d. 1904)
  • 1865-02-28 Wilfred Grenfell, British medical missionary to Newfoundland and Labrador, born in Neston, England (d. 1940)
  • 1866-09-21 Charles Nicolle, French bacteriologist (Nobel Prize in Medicine 1928), born in Rouen, France (d. 1936)
  • 1869-06-27 Hans Spemann, German embryologist (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1935), born in Stuttgart, Germany (d. 1941)
  • 1873-06-03 Otto Loewi, German physician (Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine 1936), born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany (d. 1961)
  • 1875-06-09 Henry Dale, English physiologist (Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology 1936), born in London, England (d. 1968)
  • 1878-08-28 George Whipple, American physician and biomedical researcher (Nobel-1934), born in Ashland, New Hampshire (d. 1976)
  • 1881-02-19 Evert Gorter, founder of Dutch medical child care
  • 1885-06-08 Karl Genzken, Nazi physician, Chief of the Medical Office of the Waffen-SS, born in Preetz, German Empire (d. 1957)
  • 1887-04-13 Gordon S. Fahrni, Canadian physician and President of the Canadian Medical Association, born in Gladstone, Manitoba (d. 1995)

Frederick BantingFrederick Banting (1891-1941)

1891-11-14 Canadian physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, born in Alliston, Ontario

  • 1895-10-30 Gerhard Domagk, German bacteriologist (Nobel Prize 1939 in Physiology or Medicine - first commercially available antibiotic and marketed under the brand name Prontosil), born in Lagow, Brandenburg (d. 1964)
  • 1899-09-03 Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Australian virologist (Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for tissue grafting), born in Traralgon, Victoria (d. 1985)
  • 1901-05-07 Lowell T. Coggeshall, American medical scientist and US Secretary of HEW (1956-58), born in Saratoga, Indiana (d. 1987)
  • 1903-11-11 Charles Bruce Perry, Professor of Medicine (Bristol University) (d. 1996)
  • 1905-03-27 John Fleming (Jack) Brock, South African nutritional scientist, physician and a professor in the Department of Medicine at the University of Cape Town, born in Port Elizabeth, South Africa (d. 1983)
  • 1906-06-19 Ernst Chain, German-British chemist and bacteriologist (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1945 - for his work on penicillin), born in Berlin, German Empire (d. 1979)
  • 1908-10-01 Doug Young, Canadian NHL defenceman (Stanley Cup 1936-37, Detroit Red Wings captain), born in Medicine Hat, Alberta (d. 1990)
  • 1910-04-22 Eric Scowen, English physician and Professor of Medicine (University of London, 1961-75), born in West Ham, London (d. 2001)
  • 1911-05-05 Philip Manson-Bahr, English zoologist and specialist in tropical medicine, born in Wavertree, Liverpool, England (d. 1996)
  • 1911-12-06 Alfred James Broomhall, British Protestant Christian medical missionary to China, born in Shandong, China (d. 1994)
  • 1911-12-23 Niels Jerne, Danish immunologist (1984 Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology), born in London, England (d. 1994)
  • 1912-08-13 Salvador Luria, Italian-American microbiologist (Nobel Prize for medicine 1969 genetic structure of viruses), born in Turin, Italy (d. 1991)
  • 1913-05-29 Douglas Black, Scottish physician and medical scientist (played a key role in the development of the National Health Service), born in Delting, Shetland (d. 2002)
  • 1913-10-27 Joseph Medicine Crow, Native American chief and historian, born near Lodge Grass, Montana (d. 2013)
  • 1913-11-27 Frances Swem Anderson, American technologist (nuclear medicine), born in Grand Rapids, Michigan (d. 2019)
  • 1914-02-22 Renato Dulbecco, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate

Jonas SalkJonas Salk (1914-1995)

1914-10-28 American medical researcher and virologist who created the Polio vaccine, born in NYC, New York

  • 1915-02-28 Peter Medawar, British biologist (1960 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"), born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (d. 1987)
  • 1915-04-02 Antony Dornhorst, British physician and Professor of Medicine, born in Woodford, Essex, England (d. 2003)
  • 1915-11-29 Earl W. Sutherland, American pharmacologist (1971 Nobel Prize Medicine or Physiology 1971 - cyclic AMP), born in Burlingame, Kansas (d. 1974)
  • 1916-06-04 Robert F. Furchgott, American pharmacologist (co-winner Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1998), and educator, born in Charleston, South Carolina (d. 2009)
  • 1917-11-23 Hugh Joseph Charles James L'Etang, British medical writer (d. 1996)
  • 1918-10-23 James Daly, American actor (Medical Center, Planet of the Apes), born in Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin (d. 1978)
  • 1919-06-18 Edwin Clarke, British neurologist, medical historian,and museum keeper, born in Felling-on-Tyne, England (d. 1996)
  • 1920-01-09 Hakim Mohammed Said, Pakistani scholar & medical researcher, born in New Delhi, India (d. 1998)
  • 1920-03-15 E. Donnall Thomas, American physician, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 1920-03-28 Lord Butterfield [John Butterfield], British medical researcher, clinician and administrator, born in Stechford, Birmingham (d. 2000)
  • 1920-08-01 Henrietta Lacks [Loretta Pleasant], African-American tobacco farmer whose cancer cells are the source of the HeLa cell line, extensively used in medical research since the 1950s (1st immortalised cell line), born in Roanoke, Virginia (d. 1951)
  • 1921-07-19 Rosalyn Yalow, American medical physicist (Nobel 1977), born in NYC, New York (d. 2011)
  • 1921-08-08 Vulimiri Ramalingaswami, Indian medical scientist, born in Srikakulam, British India (d. 2001)
  • 1923-07-05 Arno Motulsky, German-born founder of medical genetics, known as the "father of pharmacogenomics", born in Fischhausen, East Prussia, Weimar Germany (d. 2018)
  • 1923-09-09 Daniel Carleton Gajdusek, American virologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 1923-11-05 Ian Munro, British medical journalist, humanitarian and cricketer, born in Bradford, England (d. 1997)
  • 1924-06-14 James Black, Scottish pharmacologist, developer of treatments for heart disease (propranolol) and stomach ulcers (cimetidine) (Nobel Prize for Medicine, 1988), born in Uddingston, Lanarkshire, Scotland (d. 2010)
  • 1924-07-26 John Kilgour, British physician and director of prison medical services (Home Office), born in Aberdeen, Scotland (d. 2008)
  • 1925-01-28 Henry Harris, British professor of medicine
  • 1925-07-28 Baruch Samuel Blumberg, American scientist, (1976 Nobel laureate for Physiology or Medicine for work on Hepatitis B), born in Brooklyn, New York (d. 2011)
  • 1925-09-24 Autar Singh Paintal, Indian medical scientist, born in Mogok, Myanmar (d. 2004)
  • 1925-11-16 Michel Jouvet, French neuroscientist and medical researcher who discovered the region of the brain that controls rapid eye movement (REM sleep), born in Lons-le-Saunier, Jura, France (d. 2017)
  • 1925-12-01 Martin Rodbell, American biochemist (1994 Nobel Prize for medicine or Physiology for discovery of G-proteins), born in Baltimore, Maryland (d. 1998)
  • 1926-07-09 Mathilde Krim, American medical researcher and founding chairman of amfAR (Foundation for AIDS Research), born in Como, Italy (d. 2018)
  • 1926-09-17 Donald Acheson, Irish physician and Chief Medical Officer for England (1983-90), born in Belfast, Northern Ireland (d. 2010)
  • 1927-01-14 John Mallard, English medical physicist (developed MRI and PET scans), born in Northampton, England (d. 2021)
  • 1927-10-08 César Milstein, Argentine biochemist (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984), born in Bahía Blanca, Argentina (d. 2002)
  • 1928-01-31 Eric Ash, rector (Imperial College of Science, Technology & Medicine)

Jack KevorkianJack Kevorkian (1928-2011)

1928-05-26 American pathologist and right-to-die activist, born in Pontiac, Michigan

  • 1929-04-14 William Edgar Thornton, American medical doctor, USAF officer, and NASA astronaut (STS-8; STS-51-B), born in Faison, North Carolina (d. 2021)
  • 1929-06-03 Werner Arber, Swiss microbiologist (1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovery of restriction enzymes), born in Gränichen, Switzerland
  • 1930-05-22 LaSalle Leffall Jr., American surgeon, medical educator, and 1st black president of the American Cancer Society (1978), and the American College of Surgeons (1995), born in Tallahassee, Florida (d. 2019)
  • 1931-01-11 Ed Hall, American actor (Mannis, baby... I'm Back!, Medical Center), born in Roxbury, Massachusetts
  • 1931-05-04 Thomas Stuttaford, British doctor and medical columnist (The Times), born in Norfolk, England
  • 1931-08-01 Monty Losowsky, British physician and medical educator, born in London
  • 1932-05-09 David Plastow, CEO (Medical Research Council)

John B. GurdonJohn B. Gurdon (89 years old)

1933-10-02 English developmental biologist (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012), born in Dippenhall, Hampshire

  • 1934-03-11 George Stamatoyannopoulos, Greece, medical genetics researcher
  • 1934-03-22 Leslie Turnberg, British medical researcher and academic, President of the Royal College of Physicians
  • 1934-05-21 Bengt I. Samuelsson, Swedish biochemist, (1982 Nobel laureate for Medicine or Physiology for prostaglandins), born in Halmstad, Sweden
  • 1935-08-19 F. Story Musgrave, American medical doctor and NASA astronaut (STS-6, -51-F, -33, -44, -61, -80), born in Boston, Massachusetts
  • 1937-06-11 Chad Everett [Raymon Lee Cramton], American actor (Medical Center, Airplane II), born in South Bend, Indiana (d. 2012)
  • 1938-03-07 David Baltimore, American biologist (1975 Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine), born in New York City
  • 1938-07-28 George Cummings, American rocker (Dr Hook & Medicine Show), born in Meridian, Mississippi
  • 1939-09-06 Susumu Tonegawa, Japanese molecular biologist (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1987), born in Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan
  • 1940-02-04 Theodore "Ted" Stanley, American anesthesiologist and medical entrepreneur (created the fentanyl lollipop), born in Manhattan, New York (d. 2017)
  • 1941-04-13 Michael Stuart Brown, American geneticist (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985), born in Brooklyn, New York

Famous Weddings

David Livingstone

1845-01-02 Explorer and medical missionary David Livingstone (31) weds Mary Moffat

Jonas Salk

1939-06-09 Medical researcher Jonas Salk (24) weds social worker Donna Lindsay

  • 1970-06-29 Medical researcher Jonas Salk (55) weds painter and author Françoise Gilot (48) in Paris

Famous Deaths

  • 1677-07-09 Angelus Silesius [Johann Scheffer], German mystic, poet and court physician, dies at 52
  • 1714-11-05 Bernardino Ramazzini, Italian physician (founder of occupational medicine), dies at 81
  • 1738-09-23 Hermannus Boerhaave, medical/botanist, dies at 69
  • 1776-05-13 Anton de Haen, Austrian medical expert (Ratio Medendi), dies at 71
  • 1789-10-15 John Morgan, American physician-in-chief of Continental Army and co-founder of the Medical College at the University of Pennsylvania, the first medical school in Colonial America, dies at 54
  • 1804-05-24 Simon Style, Fries medical/writer, dies at 73
  • 1810-09-28 John Archer, American Congressman who received the 1st medical diploma issued on US continent (1768), dies at 69
  • 1820-02-14 Cosme Argerich, Argentine physician and founder of the Medicine School of Buenos Aires, dies at 61
  • 1846-10-02 Benjamin Waterhouse, American physician co-founder of Harvard Medical School, and smallpox vaccine pioneer, dies at 92
  • 1862-02-21 Justinus Kerner, German physician and medical writer (first detailed description of botulism), dies at 75
  • 1865-07-25 James Barry [Margaret Ann Bulkley], British military surgeon and the 1st woman in Great Britain to become a qualified medical doctor, dies at 66 or 67
  • 1865-08-13 Ignaz Semmelweis, Hungarian physician who discovered the cause of puerperal (childbed) fever and introduced antisepsis into medical practice, dies at 47
  • 1877-09-25 Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich, German Physician and advocate of scientific medicine, dies at 62
  • 1883-05-17 Lydia Estes Pinklham, patent-medicine manufacturer, dies
  • 1886-11-11 Paul Bert, Auxerre, French Zoologist, Physiologist and pioneer of aerospace medicine whose study of the effects of air pressure on the body made possible space and ocean exploration, dies of dysentery at 53
  • 1898-09-16 Ramón Emeterio Betances, Puerto Rican politician, medical doctor and diplomat, dies at 71
  • 1903-04-30 Emily Stowe, Canadian suffragist and first woman licensed to practise medicine in Canada, dies at 71
  • 1904-07-23 John Simon, British pathologist, public health officer, and 1st Chief Medical Officer (1855-76), dies at 87

Elizabeth BlackwellElizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910)

1910-05-31 English-American physician who was the first woman to receive a medical degree in the United States, dies at 89

  • 1921-05-12 Emilia Pardo Bazán, Spanish countess and writer (Pascual López: Autobiography of a Medical Student), dies at 68
  • 1922-04-09 Patrick Manson, Scottish physician and parasitologist (Father of tropical medicine), dies at 77
  • 1922-05-18 Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, French physician (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1907), dies at 76

Camillo GolgiCamillo Golgi (1843-1926)

1926-01-21 Italian physician and medical researcher (Nobel Prize in Medicine-1906), dies at 81

  • 1927-09-29 Willem Einthoven, Dutch physiologist and inventor of the electrocardiodiogram (Nobel Prize in Medicine 1924), dies at 67

Christiaan EijkmanChristiaan Eijkman (1858-1930)

1930-11-05 Dutch physician and bacteriologist (Nobel Prize in Medicine 1929), dies at 72

  • 1932-09-16 Ronald Ross, British pathologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, dies at 75
  • 1934-10-17 Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Spanish histologist (central nervous system) and neuroscientist (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906), dies at 82
  • 1935-12-04 Charles Richet, French physiologist (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1913 for work on anaphylaxis), dies at 85
  • 1936-02-28 Charles Nicolle, French bacteriologist (Nobel Prize in Medicine 1928), dies at 69
  • 1940-10-09 Wilfred Grenfell, British medical missionary to Newfoundland and Labrador, dies at 75

Frederick BantingFrederick Banting (1891-1941)

1941-02-21 Canadian physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, dies in a plane crash at 49

  • 1941-09-09 Hans Spemann, German embryologist (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1935), dies at 72
  • 1945-08-22 Ida Henrietta Hyde, American physiologist who invented the micro-electrode and the first woman allowed to do research at Harvard Medical School and to be elected to the American Physiology Society, dies at 87
  • 1951-10-04 Henrietta Lacks [Loretta Pleasant], African-American tobacco farmer whose cancer cells are the source of the HeLa cell line, extensively used in medical research since the 1950s (1st immortalised cell line), dies of cervical cancer at 31
  • 1957-10-10 Karl Genzken, Nazi physician, Chief of the Medical Office of the Waffen-SS, dies at 72
  • 1961-06-17 Jeff Chandler [Ira Grossel], American actor (Broken Arrow), dies as a result of medical malpractice at 42
  • 1961-12-25 Otto Loewi, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1873)
  • 1964-04-24 Gerhard Domagk, German bacteriologist (Nobel Prize 1939 in Physiology or Medicine - first commercially available antibiotic and marketed under the brand name Prontosil), dies at 68
  • 1965-10-13 Paul Hermann Müller, Swiss chemist (1948 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discovering effects of DDT), dies at 66

Albert StevensAlbert Stevens (1887-1996)

1966-01-09 an American patient in secret medical trials who survived the highest known radiation dose in a human, dies of heart disease at 79

  • 1968-07-23 Henry Hallett Dale, physiologist (1938 Noble Prize for Medicine or Physiology for work on acetylcholine), dies at 93
  • 1972-05-04 Edward Calvin Kendall, American chemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1886)
  • 1973-08-12 Walter Rudolf Hess, Swiss physiologist (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1949), dies of heart failure at 92
  • 1978-07-03 James Daly, American actor (Medical Center, Planet of the Apes), dies of heart failure at 59
  • 1978-09-11 Janet Parker, English medical photographer, the last person to die of smallpox, dies at 40
  • 1979-08-12 Ernst Chain, German-British chemist and bacteriologist (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1945 - for his work on penicillin), dies at 73
  • 1982-04-30 Lester Bangs, American music journalist (Creem; Rolling Stone), and musician (Birdland), dies of accidental cold medicine overdose at 33
  • 1983-07-03 John Fleming (Jack) Brock, South African nutritional scientist, physician and a professor in the Department of Medicine at the University of Cape Town, dies at 78
  • 1985-08-31 Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Australian virologist (Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for tissue grafting), dies at 85
  • 1985-09-08 John Franklin Enders, American scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1887)
  • 1987-10-02 Peter Medawar, British biologist (1960 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"), dies at 72
  • 1987-11-11 Lowell T. Coggeshall, American medical scientist and US Secretary of HEW (1956-58), dies at 86
  • 1993-10-25 Philip P. Cohen, American medical researcher, dies at 85
  • 1993-12-04 Hetty de Boer-Jongkind, Dutch medical astrologist and founder (Vakvereniging Medical Astrology), dies at 42
  • 1994-05-11 Alfred James Broomhall, British Protestant Christian medical missionary to China, dies at 82
  • 1995-11-03 Gordon S. Fahrni, Canadian physician and President of the Canadian Medical Association, dies at 108
  • 1996-03-12 Charles Bruce Perry, Professor of Medicine (Bristol University), dies at 92
  • 1996-04-11 Edwin Clarke, British neurologist, medical historian,and museum keeper, dies of pancreatic cancer at 76
  • 1996-11-25 Hugh Joseph Charles James L'Etang, medical writer, dies at 79
  • 1996-12-31 Philip Manson-Bahr, English zoologist and specialist in tropical medicine, dies at 85
  • 1997-01-22 Ian Munro, British medical journalist, humanitarian and cricketer, dies at 73
  • 2000-10-15 Konrad Emil Bloch, German-born biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1912)
  • 2001-05-28 Vulimiri Ramalingaswami, Indian medical scientist, dies at 79
  • 2001-06-05 Pedro Laín Entralgo, Spanish writer, medical and humanist, dies at 93
  • 2002-01-11 Struan Sutherland, Australian medical researcher (b. 1936)
  • 2002-03-24 César Milstein, Argentine biochemist (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984), dies at 74
  • 2002-09-13 Douglas Black, Scottish physician and medical scientist (played a key role in the development of the National Health Service), dies at 89
  • 2003-04-20 Bernard Katz, German-born Australian biophysicist (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970), dies at 82
  • 2004-07-21 Edward B. Lewis, American geneticist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate (b. 1918)
  • 2004-10-05 William H. Dobelle, American biomedical engineer (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013 nominee), dies at 62
  • 2004-12-21 Autar Singh Paintal, Indian medical scientist, dies at 79
  • 2004-12-29 Julius Axelrod, American biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1912)
  • 2006-11-24 (Juhani) "Juice" Leskinen, Finnish rock singer-songwrirter ("Musta aurinko nousee - Black Sun Rises"; "Marilyn"), and poet, dies from multiple medical issues at 56
  • 2007-01-01 Roland Levinsky, South African medical scientist, dies at 63
  • 2007-12-20 Nataline Sarkisyan, American medical patient (b. 1990)
  • 2008-05-29 Dianne Odell, American medical figure (b. 1947)
  • 2008-05-30 Lorenzo Odone, American medical figure (b. 1978)
  • 2009-02-11 Willem J Kolff, Dutch-American Physician and Biomedical Engineer (artificial kidney, hemodialysis), dies at 97
  • 2009-05-19 Robert F. Furchgott, American pharmacologist (co-winner Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1998), and educator, dies at 92
  • 2010-01-10 Donald Acheson, Irish physician and Chief Medical Officer for England (1983-90), dies at 83
  • 2010-03-22 James Black, Scottish pharmacologist, developer of treatments for heart disease (propranolol) and stomach ulcers (cimetidine) (Nobel Prize for Medicine, 1988), dies at 85
  • 2010-03-22 James W. Black, Scottish Nobel Prize-winning doctor and medical research scientist (b. 1924)
  • 2011-04-05 Baruch Samuel Blumberg, American scientist, (1976 Nobel Laureate for Physiology or Medicine, for work on Hepatitis B), dies at 85
  • 2011-05-30 Rosalyn Yalow, American medical physicist (Nobel 1977), dies at 89
  • 2012-07-24 Chad Everett [Raymon Lee Cramton], American actor (Medical Center, Airplane II), dies from lung cancer at 75
  • 2016-04-03 Joseph Medicine Crow, Native American chief and historian, dies at 102
  • 2017-08-03 Theodore "Ted" Stanley, American anesthesiologist and medical entrepreneur (created the fentanyl lollipop), dies at 77
  • 2017-10-03 Michel Jouvet, French neuroscientist and medical researcher who discovered the region of the brain that controls rapid eye movement (REM sleep), dies at 91
  • 2018-01-15 Mathilde Krim, American medical researcher and founding chairman of amfAR (Foundation for AIDS Research), dies at 91
  • 2018-02-17 Arno Motulsky, German-born founder of medical genetics, known as the "father of pharmacogenomics," dies at 94
  • 2018-03-06 Sir John E. Sulston, British molecular biologist, co-recipient of 2002 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (roundworm genome sequencing), dies of stomach cancer at 75
  • 2019-04-11 Frances Swem Anderson, American technologist (nuclear medicine), dies at 105
  • 2019-05-25 LaSalle Leffall Jr., American surgeon, medical educator, and 1st black president of the American Cancer Society (1978), and the American College of Surgeons (1995), dies at 89
  • 2020-02-16 Tony Fernández, Dominican MLB baseball shortstop, 1983-2001, 5X All-Star, 4X Golden Glove (Toronto Blue Jays, and 6 other teams), dies of multiple medical issues at 57

Breonna TaylorBreonna Taylor (1993-2020)

2020-03-13 African American medical technician, shot and killed by police officers in her home at 26 [1]

  • 2021-01-11 William Edgar Thornton, American medical doctor, USAF officer, and astronaut (STS-8, STS-51B), dies at 91
  • 2021-02-26 John Mallard, English medical physicist (developed MRI and PET scans), dies at 94