Philosophy in History

Historical Events

  • 0585-05-28 BC Solar eclipse, as predicted by Greek philosopher Thales, while Lydians at war with the Medes leads to a truce. One of the cardinal dates from which other dates calculated.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

0399-02-15 BC Philosopher Socrates is sentenced to death by the city of Athens for corrupting the minds of the youth of the city and for impiety

Philosopher Socrates
Philosopher
Socrates
  • 1165-10-12 Jewish rabbi and philosopher Moses ben Maimon (aka Maimonides or the Rambam) reaches Jerusalem
  • 1600-02-17 Philosopher Giordano Bruno is burned alive at Campo de' Fiori in Rome, charged with heresy by the Roman Inquisition

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1619-11-10 René Descartes has the dream that inspires his "Meditations on First Philosophy"

Philosopher René Descartes
Philosopher
René Descartes

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1654-11-23 French mathematician, scientist, and religious philosopher Blaise Pascal experiences an intense, mystical vision that marks him for life.

Mathematician, Physicist and Philosopher Blaise Pascal
Mathematician, Physicist and Philosopher
Blaise Pascal

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1678-06-25 Venetian Elena Cornaro Piscopia is awarded a doctorate of philosophy from the University of Padua, 1st woman to receive a university doctoral degree or PhD

Philosopher and Mathematician Elena Cornaro Piscopia
Philosopher and Mathematician
Elena Cornaro Piscopia

AgreementContract of Interest

1738-09-26 Scottish philosopher David Hume enters into a contract to publish the first two volumes of his seminal work "A Treatise of Human Nature" with John Noon in London

Philosopher David Hume
Philosopher
David Hume
  • 1740-11-05 The third volume of philosopher David Hume's seminal work "A Treatise of Human Nature" is published by Thomas Longman

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1772-04-09 Philosopher and mathematician Jean-Baptiste Le Rond d'Alembert becomes permanent secretary of the French Academy of Sciences

Enlightenment Philosopher Jean-Baptiste Le Rond d'Alembert
Enlightenment Philosopher
Jean-Baptiste Le Rond d'Alembert

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1793-10-03 A warrant is issued for the arrest of French mathematician and philosopher Marquis de Condorcet forcing him into hiding

Enlightenment Philosopher Marquis de Condorcet
Enlightenment Philosopher
Marquis de Condorcet

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1888-10-15 German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche decides to write his autobiography "Ecce Homo" on his 44th birthday

Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche
Philosopher
Friedrich Nietzsche

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

1933-04-21 German philosopher Martin Heidegger elected rector of University of Freiburg

Philosopher Martin Heidegger
Philosopher
Martin Heidegger

Execution'The Banality of Evil'

1963-02-16 Philosopher Hannah Arendt's controversial account of the trial of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann is first published in "The New Yorker"
Learn More >>

Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann sits in the dock at his 1961 trial in Jerusalem
Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann sits in the dock at his 1961 trial in Jerusalem

Nobel prizeNobel Prize

1964-10-22 French philosopher and author Jean-Paul Sartre refuses Nobel prize

  • 1974-12-02 MLB Rules Committee changes long time philosophy to permit the use of cowhide, rather than just horsehide in the manufacture of baseballs
  • 1977-08-23 Marxist philosopher Rudolf Bahro imprisoned in German DR

BeatificationBeatification

1993-03-21 Pope John Paul II beatifies Duns Scotus, a philosopher-theologian of the Middle Ages

264th Pope John Paul II
264th Pope
John Paul II

Book releaseHistoric Publication

1997-06-26 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, 1st book in J. K. Rowling's best-selling series, is published

Novelist J. K. Rowling
Novelist
J. K. Rowling

Film release premierFilm Premier

2001-11-04 "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone" 1st film adaptation of the books by J. K. Rowling, premieres starring Daniel Radcliffe


Famous Birthdays

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 427


Person of interestConfucius

0551-09-28 BC Confucius, Chinese philosopher and founder of Confucianism, born in Zou, Lu state, China (d. ~479 BC)

Philosopher Confucius
Philosopher
Confucius

Person of interestCicero

0106-01-03 BC Cicero, Roman statesman and philosopher, born in Arpinum (d. 43 BC)

Roman Statesman & Philosopher Cicero
Roman Statesman & Philosopher
Cicero
  • 0354-11-13 Augustine of Hippo, North African Christian theologian and philosopher, born in Thagaste, Numidia (d. 430)
  • 1048-05-18 Omar Khayyám, Persian mathematician, poet and philosopher (d. 1131)
  • 1135-03-30 Maimonedes, philosopher (d. 1204)
  • 1165-07-28 Ibn al-'Arabi, Muslim mystic/philosopher
  • 1201-02-18 Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Persian philosopher, architect and mathematician (Tadhkirah fi ʿilm al-hay), born in Ṭūs, Khorāsān (d. 1274)
  • 1213-06-10 Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi, Persian philosopher, born in Hamedan, Iran (d. 1289)

Person of interestIbn Khaldūn

1332-05-27 Ibn Khaldūn, North African Islamic scholar, philosopher and historian (Muqaddimah), born in Tunis (d. 1406)

Islamic Scholar, Philosopher and Historian Ibn Khaldūn
Islamic Scholar, Philosopher and Historian
Ibn Khaldūn
  • 1433-10-19 Marsilio Ficino, Italian philosopher (d. 1499)
  • 1463-10-29 Alessandro Achillini, Italian physician and philosopher, born in Bologna, Italy (d. 1512)
  • 1502-02-02 Damião de Góis, Portuguese philosopher (d. 1574)
  • 1519-06-06 Andrea Cesalpino, Italian philosopher, physician and botanist, born in Arezzo, Italy (d. 1603)
  • 1533-02-28 Michel de Montaigne, French philosopher and essayist (Essais), born in Château de Montaigne, Aquitaine, France (d. 1592)
  • 1547-03-01 Rudolph Goclenius, German philosopher (d. 1628)
  • 1550-12-22 Cesare Cremonini, Italian professor of natural philosophy, born in Cento, Papal States (d. 1631)
  • 1552-08-14 Paolo Sarpi, Italian church historian and statesman, born in Venice (d. 1623)
  • 1568-09-05 Tommaso Campanella, Italian theologian, philosopher, and poet, born in Stignano, Kingdom of Sicily (d. 1639)
  • 1572-04-14 Adam Tanner, Austrian mathematician and philosopher, born in Innsbruck, Austria (d. 1632)
  • 1583-03-03 Edward Herbert of Cherbury, English military/philosopher

Person of interestThomas Hobbes

1588-04-05 Thomas Hobbes, English philosopher (Leviathan), born in Westport, England (d. 1679)

Philosopher Thomas Hobbes
Philosopher
Thomas Hobbes
  • 1588-09-08 Marin Mersenne, French mathematician (Number of Mersenne), born in Oizé, Maine, France (d. 1648)
  • 1588-12-10 Isaac Beeckman, Dutch scientist and philosopher, born in Middelburg, Netherlands (d. 1637)
  • 1592-01-22 Pierre Gassendi, Champtercier Provence, scientist/philosopher

Person of interestRené Descartes

1596-03-31 René Descartes, French philosopher (he thought, therefore he was), born in Descartes, Indre-et-Loire, France (d. 1650)

Philosopher René Descartes
Philosopher
René Descartes
  • 1603-07-11 Kenelm Digby, English philosopher and diplomat, born in Gayhurst, Buckinghamshire, England (d. 1665)
  • 1612-02-06 Antoine Arnauld, French Roman Catholic theologian & philosopher & mathematician, born in Paris, France (d. 1694)
  • 1613-04-06 Stjepan Gradić, Croatian philosopher and scientist (d. 1683)
  • 1622-02-24 Johannes Clauberg, German theologian and philosopher (d. 1665)
  • 1623-05-26 William Petty, English political economist and statistician (Treatise of Taxes and Contributions), born in Romsey, England (d. 1687)

Person of interestBlaise Pascal

1623-06-19 Blaise Pascal, French mathematician, physicist and Christian philosopher (Pascal's Law, Pascal's Wager), born in Clermont-Ferrand, France (d. 1662)

Mathematician, Physicist and Philosopher Blaise Pascal
Mathematician, Physicist and Philosopher
Blaise Pascal
  • 1624-01-30 Arnold Geulincx, Flemish philosopher (About Virtue), born in Antwerp (d. 1669)
  • 1627-01-25 Robert Boyle, Anglo-Irish natural philosopher & chemist, born in Lismore, Republic of Ireland (d. 1691)
  • 1631-12-14 Anne Conway, English philosopher, born in London (d. 1679)

Person of interestJohn Locke

1632-08-29 John Locke, English empiricist philosopher; influential Enlightenment thinker and "Father of Liberalism" (Two Treatises of Government), born in Wrington, England (d. 1704)

Philosopher John Locke
Philosopher
John Locke
  • 1632-11-24 Baruch "Benedict" de Spinoza, Amsterdam, rationalist philosopher
  • 1638-08-06 Nicolas Malebranche, French rationalist philosopher, born in Paris (d. 1715)
  • 1643-09-17 Gilbert Burnet, Scottish philosopher and Bishop of Salisbury, born in Edinburgh, Scotland (d. 1715)

Person of interestWilliam Penn

1644-10-14 William Penn, English Philosopher, Quaker and founder of Pennsylvania, born in London, England (d. 1718)

English Philosopher and Founder of Pennsylvania William Penn
English Philosopher and Founder of Pennsylvania
William Penn

Person of interestGottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

1646-07-01 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, German mathematician and philosopher (differential and integral calculus), born in Leipzig, Holy Roman Empire (d. 1716)

Philosopher and Mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Philosopher and Mathematician
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
  • 1647-11-08 Pierre Bayle, French philosopher and writer (Historical and Critical Dictionary), born in Carla-le-Comte, Kingdom of France (d. 1706)
  • 1661-05-25 Claude Buffier, French philosopher and historian, born in Warsaw, Poland (d. 1737)
  • 1662-12-13 Francesco Bianchini, Italian philosopher and scientist, born in Verona, Italy (d. 1729)
  • 1668-06-23 Giambattista Vico, Italian philosopher and historian (d. 1744)
  • 1670-11-30 John Toland, Irish rationalist philosopher, born in Ardagh, County Donegal, Ireland (d. 1722)
  • 1671-02-26 Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, English politician and philosopher (d. 1713)
  • 1675-10-11 Samuel Clarke, English philosopher and theologian, born in Norwich, England (d. 1729)
  • 1676-07-21 Anthony Collins, English philosopher (A discourse on free-thinking), born in Hounslow, Middlesex (d. 1729)
  • 1678-09-16 Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, English statesman and philosopher, born in Battersea, Surrey, England (d. 1751)
  • 1679-01-24 Christian von Wolff, German philosopher
  • 1683-03-13 John Theophilus Desaguliers, French-British natural philosopher and freemason, born in La Rochelle, France (d. 1744)
  • 1685-03-12 George Berkeley, Irish philosopher/bishop of Cloyne
  • 1686-08-12 John Balguy, English philosopher (d. 1748)
  • 1689-01-18 Charles de Montesquieu, French philosopher/writer (Letters Persanes)
  • 1694-08-08 Francis Hutcheson, Irish philosopher (d. 1746)

Person of interestVoltaire

1694-11-21 Voltaire [Francois-Marie Arouet], French writer, philosopher and playwright (Candide), born in Paris (d. 1778)

Enlightenment Philosopher Voltaire
Enlightenment Philosopher
Voltaire
  • 1694-12-22 Hermann Samuel Reimarus, German philosopher and writer, born in Hamburg, Germany (d. 1768)

Person of interestJonathan Edwards

1703-10-05 Jonathan Edwards, Christian preacher, philosopher, and theologian (Original Sin), born in East Windsor, Connecticut Colony (d. 1758)

Christian Preacher and Philosopher Jonathan Edwards
Christian Preacher and Philosopher
Jonathan Edwards
  • 1705-08-30 David Hartley, English philosopher and Founder of the Associationist School of Psychology, born in Halifax, Yorkshire, England (d. 1757)
  • 1706-11-08 Johann Ulrich von Cramer, German judge and philosopher, born in Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany (d. 1772)
  • 1709-07-20 James Harris, English philosopher, born in Salisbury, Wiltshire (d. 1780)
  • 1710-04-26 Thomas Reid, Scottish philosopher and founder of Scottish School of Common Sense, born in Strachan, Scotland (d. 1796)

Person of interestDavid Hume

1711-04-26 David Hume, Scottish philosopher and historian (A Treatise of Human Nature), born in Edinburgh, Scotland [NS 7 May] (d. 1776)

Philosopher David Hume
Philosopher
David Hume
  • 1711-08-05 Johan Lulofs, Dutch physicist/philosopher/astronomer
  • 1712-06-28 Jean-Jacques Rousseau, French philosopher, eminent political theorist, and writer whose influential works inspired French Revolution leaders and Romantic academics (Confession), born in Geneva, Switzerland (d. 1778)
  • 1713-05-06 Charles Batteux, French philosopher, born in Alland'Huy-et-Sausseuil, Ardennes (d. 1780)
  • 1713-09-18 Jean Allamand, Swiss-Dutch natural philosopher, born in Lausanne, Switzerland (d. 1787)

Person of interestDenis Diderot

1713-10-05 Denis Diderot, French enlightenment philosopher (Encyclopédie), born in Langres, Champagne (d. 1784)

Enlightenment Philosopher Denis Diderot
Enlightenment Philosopher
Denis Diderot
  • 1715-01-10 Christian August Crusius, German philosopher and theologian, born in Leuna, Germany (d. 1775)
  • 1715-01-26 Claude Helvetius, philosopher, born in Paris, France
  • 1715-09-30 Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, French philosopher (d. 1780)
  • 1721-12-27 Franciscus "French" Hemsterhuis, Frisian philosopher
  • 1723-02-23 Richard Price, Welsh philosopher (d. 1791)

Person of interestAdam Smith

1723-06-16 Adam Smith, Scottish economist (Wealth of Nations) and moral philosopher (date of baptism), born in Kirkaldy, Fife, Scotland (d. 1790)

Economist and Philosopher Adam Smith
Economist and Philosopher
Adam Smith

Person of interestImmanuel Kant

1724-04-22 Immanuel Kant, German philosopher (Critique of Pure Reason), born in Königsberg, East Prussia (d. 1804)

Philosopher Immanuel Kant
Philosopher
Immanuel Kant
  • 1728-12-02 Ferdinando Galiani, Italian economist (Della Moneta), born in Chieti, Italy (d. 1787)
  • 1729-01-01 Edmund Burke, British author (Philosophy & Inquiry) [NS=Jan 12]
  • 1729-01-12 Edmund Burke, British author (Philosophy & Inquiry) [OS=Jan 1]
  • 1729-09-06 Moses Mendelssohn, German Jewish enlightenment philosopher (Haksalah), born in Dessau, Principality of Anhalt (d. 1786)
  • 1730-08-27 Johann Georg Hamann, German counter-enlightenment philosopher ("Reason is language"), born in Königsberg, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1788)
  • 1731-12-12 Erasmus Darwin, influential English physician, poet, philosopher, and botanist (grandfather of Charles Darwin), born in Newark-on-Trent, England (d. 1807)
  • 1733-07-22 Mikhail Shcherbatov, Russian philosopher and writer (d. 1790)
  • 1735-10-25 James Beattie, Scottish poet and philosopher (Essay on Truth), born in Laurencekirk, Kincardineshire, Scotland (d. 1803)
  • 1736-09-16 Johann Nikolaus Tetens, German-Danish philosopher and mathematician, born in Tetenbüll, Duchy of Schleswig, Denmark (d. 1807)

Person of interestMarquis de Sade

1740-06-02 Marquis de Sade, French philosopher and writer (Justine). The words sadism and sadist are derived from his name., born in Paris, France (d/ 1814)

Philosopher and Writer Marquis de Sade
Philosopher and Writer
Marquis de Sade
  • 1741-11-15 Johann Kaspar Lavater, Swiss writer, philosopher and founder of physiognomics, born in Zürich, Switzerland (d. 1801)
  • 1743-09-17 Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis of Condorcet, French enlightenment philosopher and mathematician, born in Ribemont, Picardy, France (d. 1794)

Person of interestMarquis de Condorcet

1743-09-17 Marquis de Condorcet, French enlightenment philosopher (Condorcet Method), born in Ribemont, France (d. 1794)

Enlightenment Philosopher Marquis de Condorcet
Enlightenment Philosopher
Marquis de Condorcet
  • 1744-08-25 Johann G von Herder, German philosopher, theologist and poet, born in Morąg, Poland (d. 1803)
  • 1748-02-06 Adam Weishaupt, German philosopher & founder of the Order of the Illuminati, born in Ingolstadt, Germany (d. 1811)
  • 1748-02-15 Jeremy Bentham, English philosopher/originator (Utilitarian), born in London, England

Person of interestJohann Wolfgang von Goethe

1749-08-28 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German writer and social philosopher (Faust), born in Frankfurt am Main, Holy Roman Empire (d. 1832)

Social Philosopher Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Social Philosopher
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
  • 1753-11-22 Dugald Stewart, Scottish philosopher and mathematician (Scottish common sense), born in Edinburgh, Scotland (d. 1828)
  • 1753-12-19 John Taylor, Virginia, philosopher (Jeffersonian Democracy)
  • 1754-07-20 Antoine Destutt de Tracy, French Enlightenment philosopher, born in Paris (d. 1836)
  • 1756-03-03 William Godwin, philosopher/political writer (Caleb Williams)
  • 1756-11-27 Paul van Hemert, Dutch theologist and philosopher (Kant) (d. 1825)
  • 1757-10-26 Karl Leonhard Reinhold, Austrian philosopher (elementary philosophy), born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1823)
  • 1761-12-11 Gian Domenico Romagnosi, Italian philosopher and physicist, born in Salsomaggiore Terme, Italy (d. 1835)
  • 1762-05-19 Johann G Fichte German philosopher (Wissenschaftslehre)

Famous Weddings


LoveWedding of Interest

1727-07-28 Philosopher Jonathan Edwards (23) weds Sarah Pierpont

Christian Preacher and Philosopher Jonathan Edwards
Christian Preacher and Philosopher
Jonathan Edwards

LoveWedding of Interest

1763-05-17 Philosopher Marquis de Sade (22) weds Renee Pelagie de Montreuil in Paris

Philosopher and Writer Marquis de Sade
Philosopher and Writer
Marquis de Sade

LoveWedding of Interest

1843-06-19 Philosopher Karl Marx (25) weds Jenny von Westphalen in Germany

Communist Philosopher Karl Marx
Communist Philosopher
Karl Marx

LoveWedding of Interest

1880-04-14 Philosopher John Muir (41) weds Louisa Strentzel

Environmental Philosopher John Muir
Environmental Philosopher
John Muir

LoveWedding of Interest

1913-10-31 Historian and philosopher Will Durant (27) weds researcher Ariel Kaufman (15) at New York's City Hall

Historian Will Durant
Historian
Will Durant

LoveWedding of Interest

1939-08-04 Philosopher of communication theory Marshall McLuhan (28) weds teacher and aspiring actress Corinne Lewis (27)

Philosopher of Communication Theory Marshall McLuhan
Philosopher of Communication Theory
Marshall McLuhan

Famous Deaths

Deaths 1 - 100 of 426


Person of interestAristotle

0322-03-07 BC Aristotle, Greek philosopher and polymath (b. 384 BC)

Philosopher Aristotle
Philosopher
Aristotle

Person of interestCicero

0043-12-07 BC Cicero, Roman statesman and philosopher, killed as part of the proscriptions at 63

Roman Statesman & Philosopher Cicero
Roman Statesman & Philosopher
Cicero
  • 0065-04-12 Seneca the Younger, Roman philosopher, statesman and dramatist
  • 1109-04-21 Anselmus, philosopher/archbishop of Canterbury, dies
  • 1123-12-04 Omar Khayyám, Persian poet, astronomer, mathematician, and philosopher (b. 1048)
  • 1141-02-11 Hugo of St-Victor, philosopher/theologist/mystic, dies
  • 1164-01-27 Abraham ibn Ezra, poet/philosopher, dies
  • 1167-02-27 Robert of Melun, English philosopher/bishop of Hereford, dies
  • 1198-12-10 Averroes, Arab physician and philosopher (b. 1126)
  • 1204-12-13 Maimonides, Jewish philosopher/talmudic scholar, dies in Cairo at 69
  • 1253-10-09 Robert Grosseteste, English scientist, scholastic philosopher, theologian and Bishop of Lincoln, dies at around 78
  • 1274-06-26 Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Persian philosopher, architect and mathematician (Tadhkirah fi ʿilm al-hay) dies at 73
  • 1279-09-10 Robert Kilwardby/Anglicus, English philosopher/Cardinal, dies
  • 1293-06-29 Hendrik van Gent, Flemish neo-Augustian philosopher/theologist, dies
  • 1308-11-08 Duns Scotus, Scottish philosopher (coined the word dunce), dies at 42
  • 1315-06-29 Ramon Llull, Spanish philosopher (b. 1235)
  • 1340-10-18 Henry Henricus of Friemar, Augustine philosopher, dies
  • 1382-07-11 Nicholas van Oresme, French philosopher/bishop of Lisieux, dies at 62

Person of interestIbn Khaldūn

1406-03-19 Ibn Khaldūn, North African Islamic scholar, philosopher and historian (Muqaddimah), dies at 73

Islamic Scholar, Philosopher and Historian Ibn Khaldūn
Islamic Scholar, Philosopher and Historian
Ibn Khaldūn
  • 1416-04-23 Blaise/Blasius of Parma, Italian astrologist/philosopher/algebra, dies
  • 1457-08-01 Laurentius Valla, Italian philosopher (Voluptate), dies at about 50
  • 1464-08-11 Nicholas van Cusa, philosopher/bishop of Brixen, dies
  • 1464-08-17 Nikolaus von Cusa, German theologist/mathematician/philosopher, dies
  • 1484-08-12 George of Trebizond, Greek philosopher (b. 1395)
  • 1494-11-17 Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Italian philosopher (b. 1463)
  • 1496-03-12 Johannes de Lapide, [Johan Heynlin], German philosopher, dies
  • 1499-10-01 Marsilio Ficino, Italian philosopher (b. 1433)
  • 1512-08-02 Alessandro Achillini, Italian physician and philosopher, dies at 48
  • 1535-07-06 Sir Thomas More, philosopher, author (Utopia) and statesman, executed (beheaded) for treason at 57
  • 1561-03-25 Conrad Lycosthenes, French-born German philosopher and encyclopedist (b. 1518)
  • 1572-08-26 Petrus Ramus, French philosopher (b. 1515)
  • 1574-01-30 Damião de Góis, Portuguese philosopher (b. 1502)
  • 1588-10-02 Bernardino Telesio, Italian philosopher (Rerum in Child), dies
  • 1590-10-29 Dirck Volkertsz Coornhert, theologist/philosopher, dies at about 68
  • 1594-12-05 Gerardus Mercator, Flemish philosopher/cartographer, dies at 82
  • 1603-02-23 Andrea Cesalpino, Italian philosopher, physician and botanist, dies at 83
  • 1603-11-16 Pierre Charron, French philosopher/theologian, dies
  • 1609-08-22 Maharal of Prague, Jewish mystic and philosopher (b. 1525)
  • 1619-02-09 Lucilio Vanini, Italian philosopher (b. 1585)

Person of interestFrancis Bacon

1626-04-09 Francis Bacon, English statesman and philosopher, dies from pneumonia at 65

Statesman/Philosopher Francis Bacon
Statesman/Philosopher
Francis Bacon
  • 1628-06-08 Rudolph Goclenius, German philosopher (b. 1547)
  • 1631-07-19 Cesare Cremonini, Italian philosopher (b. 1550)
  • 1632-05-25 Adam Tanner, Austrian mathematician and philosopher, dies at 60
  • 1633-11-14 William Ames, English philosopher (b. 1576)
  • 1637-05-19 Isaac Beeckman, Dutch scientist and philosopher, dies at 48
  • 1638-11-08 Johann H Alsted, German theologist/philosopher, dies at 50
  • 1639-05-21 Tommaso Campanella, Italian theologian, philosopher and poet, dies at 70
  • 1645-08-28 Hugo Grotius, Dutch jurist, father of international law, dies at 62
  • 1648-08-20 Edward Herbert of Cherbury, English military/philosopher, dies at 65

Person of interestRené Descartes

1650-02-11 René Descartes, French philosopher "I think therefore I am", stops thinking due to pneumonia at 53

Philosopher René Descartes
Philosopher
René Descartes
  • 1655-10-24 Pierre Gassendi, French philosopher, dies at 63

Person of interestBlaise Pascal

1662-08-19 Blaise Pascal, French mathematician, physicist and Christian philosopher (Pascal's Law, Pascal's Wager), dies of a stomach tumor at 39

Mathematician, Physicist and Philosopher Blaise Pascal
Mathematician, Physicist and Philosopher
Blaise Pascal
  • 1665-01-31 Johannes Clauberg, German theologian and philosopher (b. 1622)
  • 1665-06-11 Kenelm Digby, English philosopher and diplomat, dies at 61
  • 1669-11-20 Arnold Geulincx, Flemish philosopher (Cholera), dies at 45
  • 1673-12-15 Margaret Cavendish, English poet, playwright and philosopher (early science fiction work The Blazing World), dies at about 50
  • 1677-02-21 [Benedictus] Baruch Spinoza, philosopher, dies at 44
  • 1677-09-11 James Harrington, English political philosopher (b. 1611)
  • 1679-02-23 Anne Conway, English philosopher, dies at 47

Person of interestThomas Hobbes

1679-12-04 Thomas Hobbes, English philosopher (Leviathan), dies of a stroke at 91

Philosopher Thomas Hobbes
Philosopher
Thomas Hobbes
  • 1683-05-02 Stjepan Gradić, Croatian philosopher and scientist (b. 1613)
  • 1687-09-01 Henry More, English philosopher (b. 1614)
  • 1687-12-16 William Petty, English political economist and statistician (Treatise of Taxes and Contributions), dies at 64
  • 1695-11-16 Pierre Nicole, French philosopher (b. 1625)

Person of interestJohn Locke

1704-10-28 John Locke, English empiricist philosopher; influential Enlightenment thinker and "Father of Liberalism" (Two Treatises of Government), dies at 72

Philosopher John Locke
Philosopher
John Locke
  • 1714-10-05 Kaibara Ekiken, Japanese philosopher (b. 1630)
  • 1715-03-17 Gilbert Burnet, Scottish philosopher and Bishop of Salisbury, dies at 71
  • 1715-10-13 Nicolas Malebranche, French rationalist philosopher, dies at 77

Person of interestGottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

1716-11-14 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, German philosopher and mathematician (differential and integral calculus), dies at 70

Philosopher and Mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Philosopher and Mathematician
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Person of interestWilliam Penn

1718-07-30 William Penn, English Philosopher, Quaker and founder of Pennsylvania (No cross, no crown), dies at 73

English Philosopher and Founder of Pennsylvania William Penn
English Philosopher and Founder of Pennsylvania
William Penn
  • 1722-03-11 John Toland, Irish rationalist philosopher, dies at 51
  • 1723-08-21 Dimitrie Cantemir, Romanian historian and Monarch of Moldova (1710-11), dies at 49
  • 1729-03-02 Francesco Bianchini, Italian philosopher and scientist, dies at 66
  • 1729-05-17 Samuel Clarke, English philosopher and theologian, dies at 53
  • 1729-12-13 Anthony Collins, English philosopher (A discourse on free-thinking), dies at 53
  • 1737-05-17 Claude Buffier, French philosopher and historian, dies at 75
  • 1744-01-23 Giambattista Vico, Italian philosopher and historian (b. 1668)
  • 1744-02-29 John Theophilus Desaguliers, French-British natural philosopher and freemason, dies at 60
  • 1748-09-21 John Balguy, English philosopher (b. 1686)
  • 1751-12-12 Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, English statesman and philosopher, dies at 73
  • 1752-06-16 Joseph Butler, English philosopher, dies at 60
  • 1753-03-12 George Berkeley, philosopher/bishop (Cloyne), dies on 68th birthday
  • 1754-04-09 Christian von Wolff, German philosopher, dies at 75
  • 1757-08-28 David Hartley, English philosopher and Founder of the Associationist School of Psychology, dies at 51

Person of interestJonathan Edwards

1758-03-22 Jonathan Edwards, American Christian preacher, philosopher, and theologian (Original Sin), dies at 54

Christian Preacher and Philosopher Jonathan Edwards
Christian Preacher and Philosopher
Jonathan Edwards
  • 1762-05-26 Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, German philosopher (b. 1714)
  • 1768-03-01 Hermann Samuel Reimarus, German philosopher and writer (b. 1694)
  • 1768-11-04 Johan Lulofs, Dutch physicist, philosopher and astronomer, dies at 57
  • 1771-12-26 Claude Adrien Helvétius, French philosopher (b. 1715)
  • 1772-03-29 Emanuel Swedenborg, Swedish philosopher and mathematician (b. 1688)
  • 1772-06-18 Johann Ulrich von Cramer, German judge and philosopher, dies at 65
  • 1775-10-18 Christian August Crusius, German philosopher and theologian (b. 1715)

Person of interestDavid Hume

1776-08-25 David Hume, Scottish philosopher and historian (A Treatise of Human Nature), dies of abdominal cancer at 65

Philosopher David Hume
Philosopher
David Hume

Person of interestVoltaire

1778-05-30 Voltaire [Francois-Marie Arouet], French writer, philosopher and playwright (Candide), dies at 83

Enlightenment Philosopher Voltaire
Enlightenment Philosopher
Voltaire
  • 1778-07-02 Jean-Jacques Rousseau, French philosopher, eminent political theorist, and writer whose influential works inspired French Revolution leaders and Romantic academics (Confession), dies of cerebral bleeding from a stroke at 66
  • 1780-07-14 Charles Batteux, French philosopher, dies at 67
  • 1780-08-03 Etienne B de Condillac, French philosopher (sensualism), dies at 64
  • 1782-12-27 Henry Home, Lord Kames, Scottish philosopher (b. 1697)
Enlightenment Philosopher Denis Diderot
Enlightenment Philosopher
Denis Diderot
  • 1786-01-04 Mozes Mendelssohn, German Jewish enlightenment philosopher (Haksalah), dies at 56