Philosophy in History

Historical Events

  • 0585-05-28 BC Solar eclipse, as predicted by Greek philosopher Thales, while Lydians at war with the Medes leads to a truce. One of the cardinal dates from which other dates calculated.

Historic Event

0399-02-15 BC Philosopher Socrates is sentenced to death by the city of Athens for corrupting the minds of the youth of the city and for impiety

  • 1165-10-12 Jewish rabbi and philosopher Moses ben Maimon (aka Maimonides or the Rambam) reaches Jerusalem
  • 1600-02-17 Philosopher Giordano Bruno is burned alive at Campo de' Fiori in Rome, charged with heresy by the Roman Inquisition

Historic Event

1619-11-10 René Descartes has the dream that inspires his "Meditations on First Philosophy"

Historic Event

1654-11-23 French mathematician, scientist, and religious philosopher Blaise Pascal experiences an intense, mystical vision that marks him for life.

Historic Event

1678-06-25 Venetian Elena Cornaro Piscopia is awarded a doctorate of philosophy from the University of Padua, 1st woman to receive a university doctoral degree or PhD

Historic Publication

1738-09-26 Scottish philosopher David Hume enters into a contract to publish the first two volumes of his seminal work "A Treatise of Human Nature" with John Noon in London

  • 1740-11-05 The third volume of philosopher David Hume's seminal work "A Treatise of Human Nature" is published by Thomas Longman

Historic Event

1772-04-09 Philosopher and mathematician Jean-Baptiste Le Rond d'Alembert becomes permanent secretary of the French Academy of Sciences

Historic Event

1793-10-03 A warrant is issued for the arrest of French mathematician and philosopher Marquis de Condorcet forcing him into hiding

Historic Event

1888-10-15 German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche decides to write his autobiography "Ecce Homo" on his 44th birthday

Election of Interest

1933-04-21 German philosopher Martin Heidegger elected rector of University of Freiburg

'The Banality of Evil'

1963-02-16 Philosopher Hannah Arendt's controversial account of the trial of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann is first published in "The New Yorker"

Nobel Prize

1964-10-22 French philosopher and author Jean-Paul Sartre refuses Nobel prize

  • 1974-12-02 MLB Rules Committee changes long time philosophy to permit the use of cowhide, rather than just horsehide in the manufacture of baseballs
  • 1977-08-23 Marxist philosopher Rudolf Bahro imprisoned in German DR

Beatification

1993-03-21 Pope John Paul II beatifies Duns Scotus, a philosopher-theologian of the Middle Ages

Historic Publication

1997-06-26 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, 1st book in J. K. Rowling's best-selling series, is published

Film Premiere

2001-11-04 "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone" 1st film adaptation of the book series by J. K. Rowling starring Daniel Radcliffe, premieres in London (Titled "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" in some markets)

Film Premiere

2001-11-16 "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone", 1st film adaptation of the book series by J. K. Rowling starring Daniel Radcliffe, premieres in US (Titled "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's's Stone" in some markets)


Famous Birthdays

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 442

ConfuciusConfucius (c. 551-479 BC)

0551-09-28 BC Chinese philosopher and founder of Confucianism, born in Zou, Lu state, China

CiceroCicero (106-43 BC)

0106-01-03 BC Roman statesman and philosopher, born in Arpinum

  • 0354-11-13 Augustine of Hippo, North African Christian theologian and philosopher, born in Thagaste, Numidia (d. 430)
  • 1048-05-18 Omar Khayyám, Persian mathematician (cubic equations), astronomer (Jalali calendar, basis of the Persian calendar), poet (quatrains) and philosopher, born in Nishapur, Khorasan (now Iran) (d. 1131)
  • 1135-03-30 Moses Maimonedes, Jewish philosopher, jurist and physician, born in Córdoba (d. 1204)
  • 1165-07-28 Ibn al-'Arabi, Muslim mystic and philosopher (The Meccan Revelations), born in Murcia, Spain (d. 1240)
  • 1201-02-18 Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Persian philosopher, architect and mathematician (Tadhkirah fi ʿilm al-hay), born in Ṭūs, Khorāsān (d. 1274)
  • 1213-06-10 Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi, Persian philosopher, born in Hamedan, Iran (d. 1289)

Ibn KhaldūnIbn Khaldūn (1332-1406)

1332-05-27 North African Islamic scholar, philosopher and historian (Muqaddimah), born in Tunis

  • 1433-10-19 Marsilio Ficino, Italian philosopher (d. 1499)
  • 1463-10-29 Alessandro Achillini, Italian physician and philosopher, born in Bologna, Italy (d. 1512)
  • 1502-02-02 Damião de Góis, Portuguese philosopher (d. 1574)
  • 1519-06-06 Andrea Cesalpino, Italian philosopher, physician and botanist, born in Arezzo, Italy (d. 1603)
  • 1533-02-28 Michel de Montaigne, French philosopher and essayist (Essais), born in Château de Montaigne, Aquitaine, France (d. 1592)
  • 1547-03-01 Rudolph Goclenius, German philosopher (d. 1628)
  • 1550-12-22 Cesare Cremonini, Italian professor of natural philosophy, born in Cento, Papal States (d. 1631)
  • 1552-08-14 Paolo Sarpi, Italian church historian and statesman, born in Venice (d. 1623)

Francis BaconFrancis Bacon (1561-1626)

1561-01-22 English statesman, Lord Chancellor (1617-21) and philosopher (Novum Organum), born in London

  • 1568-09-05 Tommaso Campanella, Italian theologian, philosopher, and poet, born in Stignano, Kingdom of Sicily (d. 1639)
  • 1572-04-14 Adam Tanner, Austrian mathematician and philosopher, born in Innsbruck, Austria (d. 1632)
  • 1574-01-17 Robert Fludd, British physician, author, and mystical philosopher, baptized in Bearsted, Kent, England (d. 1637)
  • 1583-03-03 Edward Herbert of Cherbury, English military/philosopher

Thomas HobbesThomas Hobbes (1588-1679)

1588-04-05 English philosopher (Leviathan), born in Westport, England

  • 1588-09-08 Marin Mersenne, French mathematician (Number of Mersenne), born in Oizé, Maine, France (d. 1648)
  • 1588-12-10 Isaac Beeckman, Dutch scientist and philosopher, born in Middelburg, Netherlands (d. 1637)
  • 1592-01-22 Pierre Gassendi, Champtercier Provence, scientist/philosopher

René DescartesRené Descartes (1596-1650)

1596-03-31 French philosopher (he thought, therefore he was), born in Descartes, Indre-et-Loire, France

  • 1603-07-11 Kenelm Digby, English philosopher and diplomat, born in Gayhurst, Buckinghamshire, England (d. 1665)
  • 1605-10-19 Thomas Browne, English philosopher and writer (Garden of Cyrus), born in London (d. 1682)
  • 1612-02-06 Antoine Arnauld, French Roman Catholic theologian & philosopher & mathematician, born in Paris, France (d. 1694)
  • 1613-04-06 Stjepan Gradić, Croatian philosopher and scientist (d. 1683)
  • 1622-02-24 Johannes Clauberg, German theologian and philosopher (d. 1665)
  • 1623-05-26 William Petty, English political economist and statistician (Treatise of Taxes and Contributions), born in Romsey, England (d. 1687)

Blaise PascalBlaise Pascal (1623-1662)

1623-06-19 French mathematician, physicist and Christian philosopher (Pascal's Law, Pascal's Wager), born in Clermont-Ferrand, France

  • 1624-01-30 Arnold Geulincx, Flemish philosopher (About Virtue), born in Antwerp (d. 1669)
  • 1627-01-25 Robert Boyle, Anglo-Irish natural philosopher & chemist, born in Lismore, Republic of Ireland (d. 1691)
  • 1631-12-14 Anne Conway, English philosopher, born in London (d. 1679)

John LockeJohn Locke (1632-1704)

1632-08-29 English empiricist philosopher; influential Enlightenment thinker and "Father of Liberalism" (Two Treatises of Government), born in Wrington, England

  • 1632-11-24 Baruch Spinoza, Dutch rationalist philosopher, born in Amsterdam, Dutch Republic (d. 1677)
  • 1638-08-06 Nicolas Malebranche, French rationalist philosopher, born in Paris (d. 1715)
  • 1643-09-17 Gilbert Burnet, Scottish philosopher and Bishop of Salisbury, born in Edinburgh, Scotland (d. 1715)

William PennWilliam Penn (1644-1718)

1644-10-14 English Philosopher, Quaker and founder of Pennsylvania (No cross, no crown), born in London

Gottfried Wilhelm LeibnizGottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)

1646-07-01 German mathematician and philosopher (differential and integral calculus), born in Leipzig, Holy Roman Empire

  • 1647-11-08 Pierre Bayle, French philosopher and writer (Historical and Critical Dictionary), born in Carla-le-Comte, Kingdom of France (d. 1706)
  • 1661-05-25 Claude Buffier, French philosopher and historian, born in Warsaw, Poland (d. 1737)
  • 1662-12-13 Francesco Bianchini, Italian philosopher and scientist, born in Verona, Italy (d. 1729)
  • 1668-06-23 Giambattista Vico, Italian philosopher and historian (d. 1744)
  • 1670-11-30 John Toland, Irish rationalist philosopher, born in Ardagh, County Donegal, Ireland (d. 1722)
  • 1671-02-26 Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, English politician and philosopher (d. 1713)
  • 1675-10-11 Samuel Clarke, English philosopher and theologian, born in Norwich, England (d. 1729)
  • 1676-07-01 Anthony Collins, English philosopher (A Dscourse On Free-Thinking), born in Hounslow, Middlesex, England (d. 1729) [birth date June 21 O.S.]
  • 1678-09-16 Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, English statesman and philosopher, born in Battersea, Surrey, England (d. 1751)
  • 1679-01-24 Christian von Wolff, German philosopher
  • 1683-03-13 John Theophilus Desaguliers, French-British natural philosopher and freemason, born in La Rochelle, France (d. 1744)
  • 1685-03-12 George Berkeley, Irish philosopher/bishop of Cloyne
  • 1686-08-12 John Balguy, English philosopher (d. 1748)
  • 1689-01-18 Charles de Montesquieu, French philosopher and writer (Letters Persanes)
  • 1694-08-08 Francis Hutcheson, Irish philosopher (d. 1746)

VoltaireVoltaire (1694-1778)

1694-11-21 French writer, philosopher and playwright (Candide), born in Paris

  • 1694-12-22 Hermann Samuel Reimarus, German philosopher and writer, born in Hamburg, Germany (d. 1768)

Jonathan EdwardsJonathan Edwards (1703-1758)

1703-10-05 Christian preacher, philosopher, and theologian (Original Sin), born in East Windsor, Connecticut Colony

  • 1705-08-30 David Hartley, English philosopher and Founder of the Associationist School of Psychology, born in Halifax, Yorkshire, England (d. 1757)
  • 1706-11-08 Johann Ulrich von Cramer, German judge and philosopher, born in Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany (d. 1772)
  • 1709-07-20 James Harris, English philosopher, born in Salisbury, Wiltshire (d. 1780)
  • 1710-04-26 Thomas Reid, Scottish philosopher and founder of Scottish School of Common Sense, born in Strachan, Scotland (d. 1796)

David HumeDavid Hume (1711-1776)

1711-04-26 Scottish philosopher and historian (A Treatise of Human Nature), born in Edinburgh, Scotland [NS 7 May]

  • 1711-08-05 Johan Lulofs, Dutch physicist, philosopher and astronomer, born in Zutphen, Netherlands (d. 1758)
  • 1712-06-28 Jean-Jacques Rousseau, French philosopher, eminent political theorist, and writer whose influential works inspired French Revolution leaders and Romantic academics (Confession), born in Geneva, Switzerland (d. 1778)
  • 1713-05-06 Charles Batteux, French philosopher, born in Alland'Huy-et-Sausseuil, Ardennes (d. 1780)
  • 1713-09-18 Jean Allamand, Swiss-Dutch natural philosopher, born in Lausanne, Switzerland (d. 1787)

Denis DiderotDenis Diderot (1713-1784)

1713-10-05 French enlightenment philosopher (Encyclopédie), born in Langres, Champagne

  • 1715-01-10 Christian August Crusius, German philosopher and theologian, born in Leuna, Germany (d. 1775)
  • 1715-01-26 Claude Helvetius, philosopher, born in Paris, France
  • 1715-09-30 Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, French philosopher (d. 1780)
  • 1721-12-27 Franciscus "French" Hemsterhuis, Frisian philosopher
  • 1722-12-03 Hryhorii Skovoroda, Ukrainian poet and philosopher, born in Chernukhi, Lubny Regiment, Cossack Hetmanate (d. 1794)
  • 1723-02-23 Richard Price, Welsh philosopher (d. 1791)

Adam SmithAdam Smith (1723-1790)

1723-06-16 Scottish economist (Wealth of Nations) and moral philosopher (date of baptism), born in Kirkaldy, Fife, Scotland

Immanuel KantImmanuel Kant (1724-1804)

1724-04-22 German philosopher (Critique of Pure Reason), born in Königsberg, East Prussia

  • 1728-12-02 Ferdinando Galiani, Italian economist (Della Moneta), born in Chieti, Italy (d. 1787)
  • 1729-01-01 Edmund Burke, British statesman, philosopher and author (A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, Reflections on the Revolution in France) [NS=Jan 12], born in Dublin, Ireland (d. 1797)
  • 1729-09-06 Moses Mendelssohn, German Jewish enlightenment philosopher (Haksalah), born in Dessau, Principality of Anhalt (d. 1786)
  • 1730-08-27 Johann Georg Hamann, German counter-enlightenment philosopher ("Reason is language"), born in Königsberg, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1788)
  • 1731-12-12 Erasmus Darwin, influential English physician, poet, philosopher, and botanist (grandfather of Charles Darwin), born in Newark-on-Trent, England (d. 1807)
  • 1733-07-22 Mikhail Shcherbatov, Russian philosopher and writer (d. 1790)
  • 1735-10-25 James Beattie, Scottish poet and philosopher (Essay on Truth), born in Laurencekirk, Kincardineshire, Scotland (d. 1803)
  • 1736-09-16 Johann Nikolaus Tetens, German-Danish philosopher and mathematician, born in Tetenbüll, Duchy of Schleswig, Denmark (d. 1807)

Marquis de SadeMarquis de Sade (1740-1814)

1740-06-02 French philosopher and writer (Justine) and where the words sadism and sadist are derived from, born in Paris, France

  • 1741-11-15 Johann Kaspar Lavater, Swiss writer, philosopher and founder of physiognomics, born in Zürich, Switzerland (d. 1801)

Marquis de CondorcetMarquis de Condorcet (1743-1794)

1743-09-17 Marquis de Condorcet, French enlightenment philosopher (Condorcet Method) and mathematician, born in Ribemont, Picardy, France

  • 1744-08-25 Johann G von Herder, German philosopher, theologist and poet, born in Morąg, Poland (d. 1803)
  • 1748-02-06 Adam Weishaupt, German philosopher & founder of the Order of the Illuminati, born in Ingolstadt, Germany (d. 1811)
  • 1748-02-15 Jeremy Bentham, English philosopher, social reformer and founder of modern utilitarianism, born in London (d. 1832)

Johann Wolfgang von GoetheJohann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832)

1749-08-28 German writer and social philosopher (Faust), born in Frankfurt am Main, Holy Roman Empire

  • 1753-11-22 Dugald Stewart, Scottish philosopher and mathematician (Scottish common sense), born in Edinburgh, Scotland (d. 1828)
  • 1753-12-19 John Taylor, Virginia, philosopher (Jeffersonian Democracy)
  • 1754-07-20 Antoine Destutt de Tracy, French Enlightenment philosopher, born in Paris (d. 1836)
  • 1756-03-03 William Godwin, philosopher/political writer (Caleb Williams)
  • 1756-11-27 Paul van Hemert, Dutch theologist and philosopher (Kant) (d. 1825)
  • 1757-10-26 Karl Leonhard Reinhold, Austrian philosopher (elementary philosophy), born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1823)

Famous Weddings

Marquis de Sade

1763-05-17 Philosopher Marquis de Sade (22) weds Renee Pelagie de Montreuil in Paris

Karl Marx

1843-06-19 Philosopher Karl Marx (25) weds Jenny von Westphalen in Germany

Friedrich Engels

1878-09-11 German philosopher Friedrich Engels (57) marries Lizzie Burns (51), hours before her death in London

John Muir

1880-04-14 Philosopher John Muir (41) weds Louisa Strentzel

Will Durant

1913-10-31 Historian and philosopher Will Durant (27) weds researcher Ariel Kaufman (15) at New York's City Hall

Marshall McLuhan

1939-08-04 Philosopher of communication theory Marshall McLuhan (28) weds teacher and aspiring actress Corinne Lewis (27)


Famous Deaths

Deaths 1 - 100 of 452

AristotleAristotle (384-322 BC)

0322-03-07 BC Greek philosopher and polymath known as the father of logic, biology and zoology, dies at around 61 or 62

CiceroCicero (106-43 BC)

0043-12-07 BC Roman statesman and philosopher, killed as part of the proscriptions at 63

  • 0065-04-12 Seneca the Younger, Roman philosopher, statesman and dramatist
  • 1109-04-21 Anselm, Italian philosopher, theologian and Archbishop of Canterbury, dies (b c. 1033)
  • 1123-12-04 Omar Khayyám, Persian mathematician (cubic equations), astronomer (Jalali calendar, basis of the Persian calendar), poet (quatrains) and philosopher, dies at 83
  • 1141-02-11 Hugo of St-Victor, philosopher/theologist/mystic, dies
  • 1164-01-27 Abraham ibn Ezra, Jewish Spanish poet and philosopher, dies (b. c. 1093)
  • 1167-02-27 Robert of Melun, English philosopher/bishop of Hereford, dies
  • 1198-12-10 Averroes, Arab physician and philosopher (b. 1126)
  • 1204-12-13 Maimonides [Moses Ben Maimon], Sephardic Jewish philosopher, astronomer and physician (Mishneh Torah), dies in Cairo at 69
  • 1240-11-16 Ibn al-'Arabi, Muslim mystic and philosopher (The Meccan Revelations), dies at 75
  • 1253-10-09 Robert Grosseteste, English scientist, scholastic philosopher, theologian and Bishop of Lincoln, dies at around 78

Thomas AquinasThomas Aquinas (c. 1225-1274)

1274-03-07 Italian theologian, Philosopher and Doctor of the Church (Summa Theologica), dies at 48 or 49 [birth date uncertain]

  • 1274-06-26 Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Persian philosopher, architect and mathematician (Tadhkirah fi ʿilm al-hay), dies at 73
  • 1274-07-15 Saint Bonaventure [Giovanni di Fidanza], Italian Franciscan, theologian, philosopher and patron saint of bowel disorders, dies at 52 or 53
  • 1279-09-10 Robert Kilwardby [Anglicus], English Archbishop of Canterbury (1272-78), philosopher and Cardinal, dies (b. 1215)
  • 1293-06-29 Hendrik van Gent, Flemish neo-Augustian philosopher and theologist, dies
  • 1308-11-08 Duns Scotus, Scottish philosopher (coined the word dunce), dies at 42
  • 1315-06-29 Ramon Llull, Spanish philosopher (b. 1235)
  • 1340-10-18 Henry Henricus of Friemar, Augustine philosopher, dies
  • 1382-07-11 Nicholas van Oresme, French philosopher/bishop of Lisieux, dies at 62

Ibn KhaldūnIbn Khaldūn (1332-1406)

1406-03-19 North African Islamic scholar, philosopher and historian (Muqaddimah), dies at 73

  • 1416-04-23 Blaise/Blasius of Parma, Italian astrologist, philosopher and algebra scholar, dies
  • 1457-08-01 Laurentius Valla, Italian philosopher (Voluptate), dies at about 50
  • 1464-08-11 Nicholas van Cusa, philosopher/bishop of Brixen, dies
  • 1464-08-17 Nikolaus von Cusa, German theologist/mathematician/philosopher, dies
  • 1484-08-12 George of Trebizond, Greek philosopher (b. 1395)
  • 1494-11-17 Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Italian philosopher (b. 1463)
  • 1496-03-12 Johannes de Lapide [Johan Heynlin], German philosopher, dies
  • 1499-10-01 Marsilio Ficino, Italian philosopher (b. 1433)
  • 1512-08-02 Alessandro Achillini, Italian physician and philosopher, dies at 48
  • 1535-07-06 Sir Thomas More, philosopher, author (Utopia) and statesman, executed (beheaded) for treason at 57
  • 1561-03-25 Conrad Lycosthenes, French-born German philosopher and encyclopedist (b. 1518)
  • 1572-08-26 Petrus Ramus, French philosopher (b. 1515)
  • 1574-01-30 Damião de Góis, Portuguese philosopher (b. 1502)
  • 1588-10-02 Bernardino Telesio, Italian philosopher (Rerum in Child), dies
  • 1590-10-29 Dirck Volkertsz Coornhert, Dutch philosopher, poet and engraver, dies at about 68
  • 1594-12-05 Gerardus Mercator, Flemish philosopher/cartographer, dies at 82
  • 1603-02-23 Andrea Cesalpino, Italian philosopher, physician and botanist, dies at 83
  • 1603-11-16 Pierre Charron, French philosopher/theologian, dies
  • 1609-08-22 Maharal of Prague, Jewish mystic and philosopher (b. 1525)
  • 1619-02-09 Lucilio Vanini, Italian philosopher (b. 1585)

Francis BaconFrancis Bacon (1561-1626)

1626-04-09 English statesman, Lord Chancellor (1617-21) and philosopher (Novum Organum), dies from pneumonia at 65

  • 1628-06-08 Rudolph Goclenius, German philosopher (b. 1547)
  • 1631-07-19 Cesare Cremonini, Italian philosopher (b. 1550)
  • 1632-05-25 Adam Tanner, Austrian mathematician and philosopher, dies at 60
  • 1633-11-14 William Ames, English philosopher (b. 1576)
  • 1637-05-19 Isaac Beeckman, Dutch scientist and philosopher, dies at 48
  • 1637-09-08 Robert Fludd, English physician, mystical philosopher and composer, dies at 63
  • 1638-11-08 Johann H. Alsted, German theologist and philosopher, dies at 50
  • 1639-05-21 Tommaso Campanella, Italian theologian, philosopher and poet, dies at 70

Hugo GrotiusHugo Grotius (1583-1645)

1645-08-28 Dutch jurist, father of international law, dies at 62

  • 1648-08-20 Edward Herbert of Cherbury, English military/philosopher, dies at 65

René DescartesRené Descartes (1596-1650)

1650-02-11 French philosopher "I think therefore I am", stops thinking due to pneumonia at 53

  • 1655-10-24 Pierre Gassendi, French philosopher, dies at 63

Blaise PascalBlaise Pascal (1623-1662)

1662-08-19 French mathematician, physicist and Christian philosopher (Pascal's Law, Pascal's Wager), dies of a stomach tumor at 39

  • 1665-01-31 Johannes Clauberg, German theologian and philosopher (b. 1622)
  • 1665-06-11 Kenelm Digby, English philosopher and diplomat, dies at 61
  • 1669-11-20 Arnold Geulincx, Flemish philosopher (Cholera), dies at 45
  • 1673-12-15 Margaret Cavendish, English poet, playwright and philosopher (early science fiction work The Blazing World), dies at about 50
  • 1677-02-21 Baruch Spinoza, Dutch Jewish philosopher (Ethics), dies of consumption at 44
  • 1677-09-11 James Harrington, English author and political theorist of classical republicanism (The Commonwealth of Oceana), dies at 66
  • 1679-02-23 Anne Conway, English philosopher, dies at 47

Thomas HobbesThomas Hobbes (1588-1679)

1679-12-04 English philosopher (Leviathan), dies of a stroke at 91

  • 1682-10-19 Thomas Browne, English philosopher and writer (Garden of Cyrus), dies at 77
  • 1683-05-02 Stjepan Gradić, Croatian philosopher and scientist (b. 1613)
  • 1687-09-01 Henry More, English philosopher (b. 1614)
  • 1687-12-16 William Petty, English political economist and statistician (Treatise of Taxes and Contributions), dies at 64
  • 1688-06-26 Ralph Cudworth, philosopher/cleric, dies
  • 1695-04-27 Juana Inés de la Cruz, Mexican philosopher & poet, and nun, dies at 44
  • 1695-11-16 Pierre Nicole, French philosopher (b. 1625)

John LockeJohn Locke (1632-1704)

1704-10-28 English empiricist philosopher; influential Enlightenment thinker and "Father of Liberalism" (Two Treatises of Government), dies at 72

  • 1706-12-28 Pierre Bayle, French philosopher and writer (Historical and Critical Dictionary), dies at 59
  • 1714-10-05 Kaibara Ekiken, Japanese philosopher (b. 1630)
  • 1715-03-17 Gilbert Burnet, Scottish philosopher and Bishop of Salisbury, dies at 71
  • 1715-10-13 Nicolas Malebranche, French rationalist philosopher, dies at 77

Gottfried Wilhelm LeibnizGottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)

1716-11-14 German philosopher and mathematician (differential and integral calculus), dies at 70

William PennWilliam Penn (1644-1718)

1718-07-30 English Philosopher, Quaker and founder of Pennsylvania (No cross, no crown), dies at 73

  • 1722-03-11 John Toland, Irish rationalist philosopher, dies at 51
  • 1723-08-21 Dimitrie Cantemir, Romanian historian and Monarch of Moldova (1710-11), dies at 49
  • 1729-03-02 Francesco Bianchini, Italian philosopher and scientist, dies at 66
  • 1729-05-17 Samuel Clarke, English philosopher and theologian, dies at 53
  • 1729-12-13 Anthony Collins, English philosopher (A discourse on free-thinking), dies at 53
  • 1737-05-17 Claude Buffier, French philosopher and historian, dies at 75
  • 1744-01-23 Giambattista Vico, Italian philosopher and historian (b. 1668)
  • 1744-02-29 John Theophilus Desaguliers, French-British natural philosopher and freemason, dies at 60
  • 1748-09-21 John Balguy, English philosopher (b. 1686)
  • 1751-12-12 Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, English statesman and philosopher, dies at 73
  • 1752-06-16 Joseph Butler, English philosopher, dies at 60
  • 1753-03-12 George Berkeley, philosopher/bishop (Cloyne), dies on 68th birthday
  • 1754-04-09 Christian von Wolff, German philosopher, dies at 75
  • 1757-08-28 David Hartley, English philosopher and Founder of the Associationist School of Psychology, dies at 51

Jonathan EdwardsJonathan Edwards (1703-1758)

1758-03-22 American Christian preacher, philosopher, and theologian (Original Sin), dies at 54

  • 1762-05-26 Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, German philosopher (b. 1714)
  • 1768-03-01 Hermann Samuel Reimarus, German philosopher & writer, dies at 74
  • 1768-11-04 Johan Lulofs, Dutch physicist, philosopher and astronomer, dies at 57
  • 1771-12-26 Claude Adrien Helvétius, French philosopher (b. 1715)
  • 1772-03-29 Emanuel Swedenborg, Swedish philosopher, mathematician and mythic (The New Church), dies at 84
  • 1772-06-18 Johann Ulrich von Cramer, German judge and philosopher, dies at 65
  • 1775-10-18 Christian August Crusius, German philosopher and theologian (b. 1715)