On This Day

Philosophy in History (Part 2)

Historical Events


Famous Birthdays

Birthdays 101 - 200 of 442

  • 1761-12-11 Gian Domenico Romagnosi, Italian philosopher and physicist, born in Salsomaggiore Terme, Italy (d. 1835)
  • 1762-05-19 Johann Gottlieb Fichte, German philosopher (Wissenschaftslehre), born in Rammenau, Electorate of Saxony (d. 1814)
  • 1763-06-21 Pierre-Paul Royer-Collard, French statesman and philosopher, born in Sompuis, France (d. 1845)
  • 1764-01-01 John Kinker, Dutch linguist/philosopher/poet (Minderjarige Zangster)
  • 1765-03-27 Franz Xaver von Baader, German philosopher and theologist, born in Munich (d. 1841)
  • 1766-04-15 Friedrich Bouterwek, German philosopher and critic, born in Oker, Hanover, Germany (d. 1828)
  • 1766-08-06 William Hyde Wollaston, English chemist and physicist (famous for discovering the chemical elements palladium and rhodium), born in East Dereham, Norfolk, England (d. 1828)
  • 1767-06-22 Wilhelm von Humboldt, German philosopher and statesman (d. 1835)
  • 1768-11-21 Friedrich Schleiermacher, German theologist and philosopher, born in Breslau, Prussian Silesia (d. 1834)
  • 1770-08-27 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, German philosopher and inventor (dialectic), born in Stuttgart, Württemberg (d. 1831)
  • 1773-04-06 James Mill, Scottish philosopher and historian (History of British India), born in Angus, Scotland (d. 1836)
  • 1773-05-02 Henrik Steffens, Norwegian-German philosopher, born in Stavanger, Norway (d. 1845)
  • 1773-08-23 Jakob F. Fries, German philosopher, born in Barby, Germany (d. 1843)

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

1775-01-27 Friedrich von Schelling, German philosopher (Views on Christianity), born in Leonberg, Württemberg, Holy Roman Empire (d. 1854)

  • 1775-04-22 Georg Hermes, German philosopher and theologist (Hermenianen), born in Dreierwalde, Münster (d. 1831)
  • 1776-05-04 Johann Friedrich Herbart, German philosopher and psychologist, born in Oldenburg, Germany (d. 1841)
  • 1780-11-22 José Cecilio del Valle, Honduran philosopher and politician, born in Choluteca, Honduras (d. 1834)
  • 1781-05-04 Karl Christian Friedrich Krause, German philosopher, born in Eisenberg, Germany (d. 1832)
  • 1781-10-05 Bernard Bolzano, Czech mathematician and philosopher, born in Prague, Bohemia (d. 1848)
  • 1783-09-08 N. F. S. Grundtvig, Danish writer and philosopher, born in Udby, Zealand, Denmark (d. 1872)
  • 1785-05-09 James Pollard Espy, American meteorologist (Philosophy of Storms), born in Pennsylvania (d. 1860)
  • 1788-02-22 Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher (Great Pessimist)
  • 1789-01-03 Carl Gustav Carus, German physiologist & painter, born in Leipzig, Germany (d. 1869)
  • 1792-11-28 Victor Cousin, French philosopher and educational reformer, born in Paris (d. 1867)
  • 1794-05-24 William Whewell, English polymath and philosopher (History of Inductive Science), born in Lancaster, Lancashire, England (d. 1866)
  • 1797-03-24 Antonio Rosmini-Serbati, philosopher/founder (Institute of Charity)
  • 1797-07-18 Immanuel Hermann Fichte, German philosopher, born in Jena, Saxe-Weimar (d. 1879)
  • 1798-01-19 Auguste Comte, French philosopher & writer (A General View of Positivism), born in Montpellier, France (d. 1857)
  • 1798-06-29 Giacomo Leopardi, Italian poet and philosopher (The Poems of Leopardi), born in Recanati, Italy (d. 1837)
  • 1801-04-19 Gustav Fechner, German philosopher and physicist (Weber–Fechner law), born in Żarki Wielkie, Poland (d. 1887)
  • 1801-08-28 Antoine Cournot, French philosopher and mathematician (rule of Cournot), born in Gray, France (d. 1877)
  • 1802-02-04 Mark Hopkins, American educator/philosopher (Williams College)
  • 1802-02-16 Phineas Parkhurst Quimby, American philosopher (d. 1866)
  • 1802-09-13 Arnold Ruge, German political philosopher and writer, born in Bergen auf Rügen, Germany (d. 1880)

Ralph Waldo Emerson

1803-05-25 Ralph Waldo Emerson, American essayist and philosopher (Concord Hymn), born in Boston, Massachusetts (d. 1882)

  • 1803-08-13 Vladimir Odoevsky, Russian philosopher & writer, born in Moscow (d. 1869)
  • 1804-07-28 Ludwig A Feuerbach, German philosopher (Man is what he eats)
  • 1805-03-16 Peter Ernst von Lasaulx, German philosopher and writer (d. 1861)
  • 1806-02-22 Józef Kremer, Polish messianistic philosopher (d. 1875)
  • 1806-04-03 Ivan Kireyevsky, Russian literary critic and philosopher, born in Moscow (d. 1856)
  • 1806-04-29 Ernst Freiherr von Feuchtersleben, Austrian physician and philosopher, born in Vienna (d. 1849)
  • 1806-10-25 Max Stirner [Johann Kaspar Schmidt], German philosopher (Der Einzige), born in Bayreuth, Bavaria (d. 1856)
  • 1807-06-30 Friedrich Theodor Vischer, German philosopher and writer (Auch einer), born in Ludwigsburg, Germany (d. 1887)
  • 1808-01-19 Lysander Spooner, American philosopher, born in Athol, Massachusetts (d. 1887)
  • 1808-07-21 Simion Bărnuţiu, Romanian philosopher and politician, born in Bocșa, Sălaj, Ottoman Empire (d. 1864)
  • 1809-01-15 Pierre Joseph Proudhon, French politician & philosopher ("father of anarchism"), born in Besançon, France (d. 1865)
  • 1813-05-05 Søren Kierkegaard, Danish philosopher, born in Copenhagen, Denmark (d. 1855)
  • 1815-01-01 Charles Renouvier, French philosopher, born in Montpellier, France (d. 1903)
  • 1816-07-14 Arthur de Gobineau, French philosopher (d. 1882)

Karl Marx

1818-05-05 Karl Marx, German philosopher (Communist Manifesto, Das Kapital), born in Trier, Prussia (d. 1883)

Herbert Spencer

1820-04-27 Herbert Spencer, British philosopher (Social Statics), born in Derby, England (d. 1903)

Friedrich Engels

1820-11-28 Friedrich Engels, German social philosopher and revolutionary socialist who co-authored "The Communist Manifesto" with Karl Marx, born in Barmen, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1895)

  • 1823-02-28 Ernest Renan, French philosopher/historian/scholar of religion
  • 1824-03-29 Ludwig Büchner, German philosopher and physician, born in Darmstadt, Germany (d. 1899)
  • 1828-04-21 Hippolyte Taine, French philosopher and historian (Voyage in Italy), born in Vouziers, Ardennes, France (d. 1893)
  • 1828-07-12 N.G. [Nikolay Gavrilovich] Chernyshevsky, Russian philosopher (What Is to Be Done?), born in Saratov, Russia (d. 1889)
  • 1828-09-28 Friedrich Albert Lange, German philosopher and socialist (Neo-Kantianism), born in Wald, Solingen, Germany (d. 1875)
  • 1830-03-30 Julius Bahnsen, German philosopher
  • 1831-04-08 Allard Pierson, Dutch theologist, philosopher and art historian, born in Amsterdam (d. 1896)
  • 1831-07-30 Helena Blavatsky, Russian occultist, philosopher, and author (co-founded Theosophical Society), born in Yekaterinoslav, Ukraine (d. 1891)
  • 1832-08-16 Wilhelm Wundt, German physiologist, psychologist and philosopher, born in Mannheim, Germany (d. 1920)
  • 1833-11-19 Wilhelm Dilthey, German philosopher (Das Leben Schleiermans), born in Wiesbaden-Biebrich, German Confederation (d. 1911)
  • 1834-02-16 Ernst Haeckel, German biologist (Causes of Evolution) and philosopher (Social Darwinism), born in Potsdam, Prussia (d. 1919)
  • 1838-01-16 Franz Brentano, German philosopher & psychologist, born in Rhine Province, Germany (d. 1917)
  • 1838-02-18 Ernst Mach, Chirlitz-Turas Austria, physicist/philosopher/psychologist
  • 1838-05-31 Henry Sidgwick, English philosopher (Wife at University), born in Skipton, Yorkshire, England (d. 1900)
  • 1839-09-10 Charles Peirce, American scientist and philosopher known as "the father of pragmatism", born in Cambridge, Massachusetts (d. 1914)
  • 1840-02-25 Otto Liebmann, German philosopher (Climax of Theories)

William James

1842-01-11 William James, American psychologist & philosopher (The Principles of Psychology), born in New York (d. 1910)

  • 1842-02-23 Karl Robert Eduard von Hartmann, German philosopher (d. 1906)
  • 1842-03-30 John Fiske [Edmund Fisk Green], American historian/philosopher
  • 1843-11-19 Richard Avenarius, German philosopher (founded the epistemological theory of knowledge known as empirical criticism), born in Paris (d. 1896)
  • 1844-08-29 Edward Carpenter, English poet and philosopher (Civilisation, Its Cause and Cure), born in Hove, Sussex, England (d. 1929)

Friedrich Nietzsche

1844-10-15 Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher and philologist (Beyond Good and Evil), born in Röcken, Saxony, Prussia (d. 1900)

  • 1845-01-07 Paul Deussen, German philosopher (Schopenhauer-Gesellschaft), born in Oberdreis, Germany (d. 1919)
  • 1845-08-10 Abai Qunanbaiuli, Kazakh poet, composer and philosopher (d. 1904)
  • 1846-01-05 Rudolf Christoph Eucken, German idealist philosopher (Nobel 1908), born in Aurich, Germany (d. 1926)
  • 1846-01-30 Francis H. Bradley, British idealist philosopher (Appearance and Reality), born in Clapham, Surrey, England (d. 1924)
  • 1847-02-25 John Watson, Canadian philosopher (Objective Idealism)
  • 1847-10-01 Annie Besant, English social reformer and supporter of Indian independence, born in London (d. 1933)
  • 1847-11-02 Georges Sorel, French philosopher and theorist of Sorelianism, born in Cherbourg, France (d. 1922)
  • 1848-06-24 Brooks Adams, American philosopher (Theory of Social Revolutions), born in Quincy, Massachusetts (d. 1927)
  • 1849-11-22 Fritz Mauthner, Austro-Hungarian novelist & critic, born in Hořice, Czech Republic (d. 1923)
  • 1850-02-28 Hermann Schell, German theologist/philosopher (Gott und Geist)

Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk

1850-03-07 Tomáš Masaryk, Czech philosopher and 1st President of Czechoslovakia (1918-35), born in Hodonín, Austrian Empire (d. 1937)

  • 1851-11-21 Désiré-Joseph Mercier, Belgian philosopher and cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, born in Braine-l'Alleud, Belgium (d. 1926)
  • 1852-09-25 Hans Vaihinger, German philosopher (Nietzsche Philosophy), born in Nehren, Germany (d. 1933)
  • 1853-01-16 Vladimir Sergeyevich Solovyov, Russian philosopher, born in Moscow, Russia (d. 1900)
  • 1854-04-29 Henri Poincaré, French mathematician (Poincaré conjecture), born in Nancy, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France (d. 1912)
  • 1854-06-09 Gerard Bolland, Dutch philosopher (Bolland Society), born in Groningen, Netherlands (d. 1922)
  • 1855-07-26 Ferdinand Tönnies, German sociologist and philosopher, born in Oldenswort, Germany (d. 1936)
  • 1855-09-09 Houston Stewart Chamberlain, British-German philosopher (wrote works about political philosophy and natural science), born in Southsea, Hampshire, England (d. 1927)
  • 1855-11-20 Josiah Royce, American philosopher (Conception of Immortality), born in Grass Valley, California (d. 1916)
  • 1857-04-19 Lucien Lévy-Bruhl, French scholar and philosopher, born in Paris (d. 1939)
  • 1858-03-01 Georg Simmel, German philosopher/sociologist
  • 1858-08-01 Paul Barth, German philosopher and sociologist, born in Oleśnica, Poland (d. 1922)
  • 1859-01-06 Samuel Alexander, English philosopher (Moral Order & Progress), born in Sydney, Australia (d. 1938)
  • 1859-04-08 Edmund Husserl, German philosopher (founded School of Phenomenology), born in Proßnitz, Margraviate of Moravia, Austrian Empire (d. 1938)
  • 1859-10-18 Henri Bergson, French philosopher (Creative Evolution-Nobel 1927)

Famous Weddings


Famous Deaths

Deaths 101 - 200 of 453

David Hume

1776-08-25 David Hume, Scottish philosopher and historian (A Treatise of Human Nature), dies of abdominal cancer at 65

Voltaire

1778-05-30 Voltaire [Francois-Marie Arouet], French writer, philosopher and playwright (Candide), dies at 83

  • 1778-07-02 Jean-Jacques Rousseau, French philosopher, eminent political theorist, and writer whose influential works inspired French Revolution leaders and Romantic academics (Confession), dies of cerebral bleeding from a stroke at 66
  • 1780-07-14 Charles Batteux, French philosopher, dies at 67
  • 1780-08-03 Etienne B de Condillac, French philosopher (sensualism), dies at 64
  • 1782-12-27 Henry Home, Lord Kames, Scottish philosopher (b. 1697)
  • 1786-01-04 Mozes Mendelssohn, German Jewish enlightenment philosopher (Haksalah), dies at 56
  • 1787-02-13 Roger Boscovich [Ruđer Bošković], Croatian-Italian astronomer. physicist, poet, and priest, dies at 75
  • 1787-03-02 Jean Allamand, Swiss-Dutch natural philosopher, dies at 73
  • 1787-10-30 Ferdinando Galiani, Italian economist (Della Moneta), dies at 58
  • 1788-06-21 Johann Georg Hamann, German counter-enlightenment philosopher ("Reason is language"), dies at 57
  • 1790-07-07 Franciscus "Frans" Hemsterhuis, Frisian philosopher, dies at 68

Adam Smith

1790-07-17 Adam Smith, Scottish economist (Wealth of Nations) and moral philosopher, dies at 67

  • 1790-12-12 Mikhail Shcherbatov, Russian philosopher and writer, dies at 57
  • 1793-10-16 John Hunter, Scottish surgeon and founder of pathological anatomy in England, dies at 65

Murder of InterestMarquis de Condorcet

1794-03-28 Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet, French enlightenment philosopher (Condorcet Method) and mathematician, is murdered or commits suicide in prison at 50

  • 1794-04-08 Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicholas-Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet, French mathematician and philosopher, dies in prison during the French Revolution at 50
  • 1796-10-07 Thomas Reid, Scottish philosopher and founder of Scottish School of Common Sense, dies at 86
  • 1797-07-09 Edmund Burke, British statesman, philosopher and author (A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, Reflections on the Revolution in France), dies at 68
  • 1801-01-02 Johann Kaspar Lavater, Swiss writer, philosopher, founder of physiognomics, dies at 59
  • 1803-08-18 James Beattie, Scottish poet and philosopher (Essay on Truth), dies at 67
  • 1803-12-18 Johann G. von Herder, German philosopher, theologist and poet, dies at 59

Joseph Priestley

1804-02-06 Joseph Priestley, English chemist, theologian and author who discovered oxygen and carbonated water, dies at 70

  • 1805-05-25 William Paley, English philosopher and theologian (Natural Theology), dies at 61
  • 1807-08-15 Johann Nikolaus Tetens, German-Danish philosopher and mathematician, dies at 70
  • 1814-01-29 Johann Gottlieb Fichte, German philosopher (Wissenschaftslehre), dies at 51

Marquis de Sade

1814-12-02 Marquis de Sade, French philosopher and writer (Justine), dies at 74. The words sadism and sadist are derived from his name.

  • 1816-04-28 Johann Heinrich Abicht, German philosopher, dies at 53
  • 1823-04-10 Karl Leonhard Reinhold, Austrian philosopher (elementary philosophy), dies at 65
  • 1824-08-21 John Taylor, philosopher (Jeffersonian Democracy), dies at 70
  • 1825-02-10 Paul van Hemert, Dutch theologist and philosopher (Kant), dies at 68
  • 1825-05-19 Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, French political philosopher (b. 1760)
  • 1828-06-11 Dugald Stewart, Scottish philosopher and mathematician (Scottish common sense), dies at 74
  • 1828-08-09 Friedrich Bouterwek, German philosopher and critic, dies at 62
  • 1829-01-12 Friedrich von Schlegel, German cultural philosopher/poet, dies at 56
  • 1831-05-26 Georg Hermes, German philosopher and theologist (Hermenianen), dies
  • 1831-11-14 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, German philosopher and inventor (dialectic), dies at 61
  • 1832-06-06 Jeremy Bentham, English philosopher (b. 1748)
  • 1832-09-27 Karl Christian Friedrich Krause, German philosopher, dies at 51
  • 1834-02-12 Friedrich Schleiermacher, German theologist and philosopher, dies at 65
  • 1836-03-09 Antoine Destutt de Tracy, French Enlightenment philosopher, dies at 81
  • 1836-06-23 James Mill, Scottish philosopher and historian, dies at 63
  • 1837-06-14 Giacomo Leopardi, Italian poet and philosopher (The Poems of Leopardi), dies at 38
  • 1841-05-23 Franz Xaver von Baader, German philosopher and theologist, dies at 76
  • 1843-08-10 Jakob F. Fries, German philosopher, dies at 69
  • 1845-02-13 Henrik Steffens, Norwegian-German philosopher, dies at 71
  • 1845-09-04 Pierre-Paul Royer-Collard, French statesman and philosopher, dies at 82
  • 1845-09-16 John Kinker, Dutch philosopher poet, dies at 81
  • 1847-06-09 Pierre-Simon Ballanche, French philosopher and poet (Orphée), dies at 70
  • 1848-12-18 Bernard Bolzano, Bohemian mathematician and philosopher (b. 1781)
  • 1849-09-03 Ernst Freiherr von Feuchtersleben, Austrian physician and philosopher, dies at 43
  • 1855-11-11 Søren Kierkegaard, Danish philosopher, dies at 42
  • 1856-06-23 Ivan Kireyevsky, Russian literary critic and philosopher, dies at 50
  • 1856-06-26 Max Stirner [Johann Kaspar Schmidt], German philosopher (Der Einzige), dies at 49
  • 1860-01-24 James Pollard Espy, American meteorologist (Philosophy of Storms), dies at 74
  • 1860-09-21 Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher (b. 1788)
  • 1861-05-09 Peter Ernst von Lasaulx, German philologist & politician, dies at 55
  • 1864-05-28 Simion Bărnuţiu, Romanian philosopher and liberal politician, dies at 55
  • 1865-01-19 Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, French philosopher and anarchist (b. 1809)
  • 1865-10-16 Andrés Bello, Venezuelan poet, lawmaker, philosopher, and sociologist (b. 1781)
  • 1866-03-06 William Whewell, English polymath and philosopher (History of Inductive Science), dies at 71
  • 1867-01-12 Victor Cousin, French philosopher and educational reformer, dies at 74
  • 1869-03-11 Vladimir Odoevsky, Russian philosopher & writer, dies at 65
  • 1869-07-28 Carl Gustav Carus, German psychologist, philosopher and painter, dies at 80
  • 1872-09-02 N. F. S. Grundtvig, Danish writer and philosopher, dies at 88
  • 1872-09-13 Ludwig A Feuerbach, German philosopher (Man what he eats), dies at 68
  • 1875-06-02 Józef Kremer, Polish messianistic philosopher (b. 1806)
  • 1875-11-21 Friedrich Albert Lange, German philosopher and socialist (Neo-Kantianism), dies at 67
  • 1877-03-31 Antoine Cournot, French philosopher and mathematician (rule of Cournot), dies at 75
  • 1879-08-08 Immanuel Hermann Fichte, German philosopher, dies at 83
  • 1880-12-31 Arnold Ruge, German political philosopher and writer, dies at 78
  • 1881-12-07 Julius FA Bahnsen, German philosopher (Tragic as Weltgesetz), dies at 51

Ralph Waldo Emerson

1882-04-27 Ralph Waldo Emerson, American essayist & philosopher (Concord Hymn), dies of pneumonia at 78

  • 1882-10-13 Arthur de Gobineau, French philosopher (b. 1816)
  • 1886-08-16 Ramakrishna, Indian mystic and yogi, dies at 50
  • 1887-05-14 Lysander Spooner, American philosopher (b. 1808)
  • 1887-09-14 Friedrich Theodor Vischer, German philosopher and writer (Auch einer), dies at 80
  • 1889-10-17 N.G. [Nikolay Gavrilovich] Chernyshevsky, Russian philosopher (What Is to Be Done?), dies at 61
  • 1891-05-08 Helena Blavatsky, Russian occultist, philosopher, and author (co-founded Theosophical Society), dies at 59
  • 1893-03-05 Hippolyte Taine, French philosopher and historian (Voyage in Italy), dies at 64

Friedrich Engels

1895-08-05 Friedrich Engels, German social philosopher and revolutionary socialist who co-authored "The Communist Manifesto" with Karl Marx, dies of throat cancer at 74

  • 1896-05-27 Allard Pierson, Dutch theologist, philosopher and art historian, dies at 65
  • 1896-08-18 Richard Avenarius, German philosopher (founded the epistemological theory of knowledge known as empirical criticism), dies at 52
  • 1899-05-01 Ludwig Büchner, German philosopher and physician, dies at 75
  • 1900-05-18 Jean Gaspard Felix Ravaisson-Mollien, French philosopher, dies at 86

Friedrich Nietzsche

1900-08-25 Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher and philologist (Übermensch and the doctrine of eternal return), dies at 55

  • 1900-08-28 Henry Sidgwick, English philosopher (Women on University), dies at 62
  • 1901-07-04 John Fiske [Edmund Fisk Green], American historian and philosopher, dies at 59
  • 1903-09-01 Charles Renouvier, French philosopher (neo criticism), dies
  • 1903-10-04 Otto Weininger, Austrian philosopher (b. 1880)
  • 1904-10-08 Gustav Ratzenhofer, Austrian sociologist and general, dies at 62
  • 1905-01-19 Debendranath Tagore, Indian philosopher (b. 1817)
  • 1906-06-05 Karl Robert Eduard von Hartmann, German philosopher (b. 1842)

Famous Philosophers